4. State Control
In contemporary terms, these can be classified as:
1. Individual freedom and national sovereignty
2. Accepting guidance of science and wisdom for all activities of state
Atatürk quoted this as ” My Heritage”
It shouldn’t be forgotten that the basis of all progressivism included in the Republic regime is the ‘Principle of Secularism.’ As usual there is no basis to talk about Republicanism amongst a society ruled by traditions as well as progressivism and secularism.
In western languages this term is used to define the rule of a nation by itself. The following two points are really important in Republican regimes.
a) The Rulers
b) The Ruled
The main point is that both of these groups must have honesty. In a republican regime, honesty is of crucial importance for both sides, and the relations of both sides with each other is very important. In this way, the republic will defend itself against interior and exterior dangers with tight measures limited with the principles of the republican regime. This frame must not be overrun. Otherwise a gap between the republic and the nation will occur. The biggest sufferer in this case will be the Republic itself. For this reason a republican regime has to be smart at all times. Freedom and its applications are limited with the rules of democracy in the countries that adopt this system. Nobody has unlimited rights in republics ruled by democracy. The regimes ruled with non-limited rights and laws cannot be classified as democracy or Republic. In democracy and democratic republican rights of the public and individual freedoms are limited with laws and their borders are marked with justice.
After all these explanations let’s have a look at Atatürk’s understandings of the Republic and State. The points that Atatürk mentioned about the republic about three quarters of a century ago are still the targets in some western countries. Atatürk was not only a well-informed soldier and a future-sighted statesman but also a real thinker. He not only generated ideas but also realized them showing the path of salvation and independence to Third World countries. Had he not placed his ideas on a scientific basis would they still remain contemporary after so many years? If the name of Atatürk circulates in many countries seeking liberty the reason must be searched for.
How did Atatürk prepare the infra-structure of the republic which was proclaimed on October 29, 1923?
The Republic should be based on secular principles. There was no room for Caliphate or its remains, and the new state of Republic should be protected by a just law system. The young generation of the republic would be trained by the broad-minded instructors who were aware of the value of independence and freedom but not by the dark-minded people expelled from the borders.
Everything remaining from empire era out of logic would be demolished and foundations of the republic would be based on positive sciences. Atatürk was aware of the fact that the republic could not proceed only by austerity measures, and the events that took place later confirmed how future-sighted Atatürk was. Atatürk, who pointed out that a population without knowledge and consciousness may not have the right to be a nation, calculated that a nation would possess rights and laws in a ratio based on the level of his consciousness.That is why he cherished culture and training, and defined that culture was the basic essential of a republic. according to Atatürk, it is not enough to protect a republic. It must be deserved! Education is the key element for this. The young generations given a contemporary education may calculate the value of this necessity. For this reason victories achieved by means of sword must be replaced with cultural victories.
Turkish people were changed to a nation from being a religious community by Atatürk. Atatürk’s confidence in the Nation was unlimited. He defended the idea that every revolution would be achieved with the Nation but not despite the Nation. His belief was that every novelty would exist eternally only if it adapted by the Nation. He kept repeating that whoever identified himself as a “Turk” within the boundaries of the country represented the “Turkish Nation” and that the Nation would be called so.
SOVEREIGNITY WILL UNCONDITIONALLY BELONG TO THE NATION
No power, external or internal strength would be able to confiscate this from the hands of the Nation. The nation would be educated to sacrifice their lives when necessary.
Based on a society without class!
This term was cleared by Ataturk as follows: “The state rule which we follow is based on individual diligence and efforts but at the same time on the subjects relevantly tied up to high and public advantages of the nation. Especially in economic fields practically state should be involved to overview economic measures. These two terms of Populism and State Control equals today’s terminology of Social Justiceand State which are terms many of today’s modern democracies are based on.
The term defined as the seperation of religious affairs and state work is a non-reversible point of Turkish revolution and the requirements of being a democracy. After this brief definition, let’s point out to Atatürk’s ideas relevant to religion and science. His ideas about religion were not too different from a noble and sincere member of the religious organisation. He was never an opponent of religion. He believed that religion was necessary for the public but he was against the replacement of law, logic, mentality with religion. He was opposed to merchants of religion, fundamentalists and those who wanted to rule the public with superstitions. Religion was a holy concept to be kept in the one’s conscience. Setting off with these ideas,
on January 31, 1923 he said the following:
“Our religion is a most natural and logical one and it is for this reason that it is the last of religions. In order for a religion to be natural it must co-exist with science, knowledge and logic. Our religion completely complies with these prerequisites. Above, we defined that secularity is the seperation of State and religious affairs but this does not mean that everybody can do everything about religion without the interference of the State. Moreover, State power may be used for any belief system. In this case the freedom of conscience will be obliterated for believers and non-believers.”
Atatürk was aware of the very big problems to be eliminated in order to flee from being an undeveloped society. For him, every contemporary attempt had to include the principle of secularism. Sultanate, caliphate, sharia, religious education and capitulations had to be obliterated. The ideas people create relevant to themselves and their environment are partially in the form of BELİEF and partially KNOWLEDGE.
According to Atatürk’s idea of progressivism it is necessary to walk on a path illuminated with the light of science.
ATATÜRKÜN ÇOCUKLUK YILLARI
HIS FAMILY & CHILDHOOD
He was born in 1881 in Salonica, then an Ottoman city, now in Greece. His father Ali Riza, a customs official turned lumber merchant, died when Mustafa was still a boy. His mother Zubeyde, a devout and strong-willed woman, raised him and his sister. First enrolled in a traditional religious school, Mustafa soon switched to a modern one. In 1893, he entered a military high school where his mathematics teacher gave him the second name Kemal, which means perfection, in recognition of young Mustafa’s superior achievement. He was thereafter known as Mustafa Kemal.
MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATURK
On a day of 1881, a male child was born in a pink house located at the district of Ahmet Subaşı, city of Salonika, which is inside Greek boundaries today.
Father Ali Rıza whispered the name of the child to his ear. “MUSTAFA.”
Before Mustafa ,Zübeyde Hanım and Ali Rıza Bey had three children named Fatma,Ömer and Ahmet. When Mustafa was born none of those children were alive.
Mother Zübeyde Hanım was a pretty Turkmen woman strictly devoted to religious beliefs.The ancestors of Zübeyde Hanım were known as a branch of Turkmen tribe. They immigrated from Anatolia to Rumelia during the conquest of Rumelia by the Ottomans and settled in Sarıgöl subdistrict located west of the Vodina district in west Makedonia. It is thought that this tribe came there from Konya or Aydın provinces of Anatolia.
Father Ali Rıza was a resident of Salonika and his father was Ahmet Efendi .His uncle Hafız Ahmet Efendi, a teacher in the district school, was nicknamed as “Red Hafız Efendi” because of his red beard.
At the time, Father Ali Rıza was working as a customs officer. Later, he quit and established a partnership with a timber trader Cafer Efendi. He was also involved with brine trading for some time. Ali Rıza passed away at the young age of 47. What were left from Ali Rıza Bey to Zübeyde was two mecidiyes (40 kuruş) widow salary,7 year old Mustafa and his sister Makbule.