Ottoman Empire Period (16th Century EMBROIDERIES) Embroidery Materials
In the 16th century, the dominant materials in use were beige twine, woven by a natural yarn, with normally a 45-50 cm width, and linen fabrics. Silk satin and silk-napped velvet closely follows linen. With the silk satin, snow white and ruby colours were used and with the velvet, ruby was used. A embroidered red satin book cover dated 1584 in the Topkapı Palace Museum Library (no. H.1365) is a valuable specimen for satins. A lamé fabric called “seraser” was also used separately or in some appliqué works. An example of seraser is an arrow case (quiver) and bows no. 2/126, and 2/129 embroidered with pearls, rubies, emeralds, and jade plaits. In the same museum there is one more example of a quiver and bow embroidered with precious jewelry (no. 1/2729 and 1/2730). Another example is a handkerchief embroidered on batik fabric. There are some more examples of batik fabric coloured with cooked quince, yellow and black embellished with the embroideries in different kind of techniques. In the same museum, pieces no. 31/53, 31/54, 31/59 and 31/60 are other distinguished examples.
Apart from woven fabrics, leathers were also used for embroidery material. In the Topkapı Palace Museum, a “nihali” made of red leather (no. 31/239), Selim II’s leather boots, and a leather cap embroidered with silk yarn and golden thread are interesting specimens in this respect. A similar example is an embroidered leather coat in the Hungarian National Museum (no. 69.80) belonging to the late 16th century. It has not escaped researchers’ attention that willow branches and reeds were used in some ceremonial shields.