Area : 20.815 km²
Population : 1.132.211 (1990)
Traffic Code : 07
Because of the archaeological and natural riches of the area, Antalya is also known as the Turkish Riviera. The sun, sea, nature and history combine to form a very popular resort, highlighted by some of the cleanest beaches in the Mediterranean. The 630km shoreline of the province is liberally scattered with ancient cities, harbours, memorial tombs and beaches, secluded coves and lush forests, many of which are easily accessible from the city.
With its palm-lined boulevard, internationally-acclaimed marina, and old castle with traditional architecture, all set amidst a modern city, Antalya is a major tourist centre in Turkey. In addition to the wide selection of hotels, restaurants, bars, nightclubs and shops, the city also plays host to a number of sporting events throughout the year, like International Beach Volleyball, triathlon, golf tournaments, archery, tennis and canoeing competitions. The Cultural Centre, which opened in 1995, hosts cultural and art events in the fields of music, theatre, and creative arts. The main area of interest in the city is central old quarter within the Roman walls, known as Kaleici, and there are many good museums.
Districts: Akseki, Alanya, Elmali, Finike, Gazipasa, Gundogmus, Ibradi, Kale, Kas, Kemer, Korkutali, Kumluca, Manavgat and Serik are all towns in the province of Antalya.
After Alanya, Akseki is the oldest district in the province of Antalya, and has an appearance that befits its location in the rugged Taurus mountains, in a forested and very rocky area. The history of Akseki extends back to the Roman era, when it was known as Marla (Marulya), and has been continually inhabited until the present day. The developments in the tourism sector in the Antalya region in recent years have been seen in Akseki as well. The area is well known for the snowdrop flower, and every years sees local and foreign visitors coming every winter to see these flowers breaking through the snow, as the first sign of spring.
In the Giden Gelmez Mountains, goats are protected and limited hunting is available year-round with the purchase of a license. Another spot frequented by visitors is the trout farming facilities in the villages of Sinan hoca and Gumusdamla. The primary game in the area is mountain goat, rabbit, bear and fox.
Other areas worth visiting are the Goktepe Highland, Giden Gelmez Mountains, Cimi Highland, Irmak Valley and the 340-metre deep Bucaklan Cave, which has only recently been discovered. Buildings of interest are the Ulu Camii and medreses.
The exact founding date of Elmali, which is located within the borders of ancient Lycia, is unknown. Excavations to the east at Karatas near the village of Semahoyuk, and to the west in the village of Beyler indicate that the area has been inhabited seen the Bronze Age.
Throughout history it has suffered the rising and falling fortune of the Lycian region, being ruled respectively by the Persian, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman empires.
Tumuluses There are several tumuluses in nearby villages. The first is west of the city in the village of Mugren, on top of which sits a small fortress dating back to the Roman era. Surface-level archaeological research indicates that the area was inhabited in the Bronze Age by various civilisations. Another village to the west, Semahoyuk, has a tumulus but due to the fact that an Ottoman cemetery is located on top of it, no research has been done. The third and largest tumulus is in Beyler, south of the city on the Elmali – Kas road. Excavations conducted here show that the area has been continuously inhabited from the Bronze Age right up to the present time. The items unearthed in the excavations are exhibited in the Antalya Museum.
East of the city 6 km from the village of Elmali near the village of Bayindir, there are several tumuluses side by side. Artifacts dating back to the 7th century BC were unearthed during the excavations. Now on display in a special section of the Antalya Museum, these findings represent a cross-section of life during that era. A statuette of pure silver and two of ivory bear witness to the fact that the art of sculpture in ancient Anatolia had reached a level of some sophistication.
Memorial Tombs There are tombs in Karaburun and Kizilbel. The walls of the King’s Tomb in Karaburun, on the Antalya – Elmali road, is decorated with frescoes of scenes of hunting and war. The tomb in Kizilbel is west of the city on the Elmali – Yuvayol road, and is a single room made of limestone blocks.
Define Described as the Treasure of the Century, this was discovered in 1984, just north of the Antalya – Elmali road between the King’s Tomb and the village of Gokpinar. Consisting of 190 pieces of ancient silver coins, the treasure was smuggled to America by antique treasure thieves. It is still on display in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts as part of a private collection. The Athens Decadrachme, 14 pieces each worth US$600,000, is said to be the world’s most valuable treasure find.
Mosques The most interesting mosques in the area include Selcuklu Camii, Kutuk Camii, Sinan-i Ummi Camii, Omer Pasa Camii and medrese.
Located 67 km from Antalya, Korkuteli is surrounded by Antalya on the east, Burdur to the north, Mugla to the southwest and Elmali and Kumluca to the south. The effects of the Mediterranean climate can be felt here in this region of lakes but the further one goes inland, the more continental the climate becomes with cold winters and hot summers.
3 km west of Korkuteli is the Alaaddin Mosque, only the door of which is still standing. In the same area is the Seljuk religious school which bears the name of its founde,r and was built by El Emin Sinaeddin of the Hamidogullari dynasty in 1319.
There are numerous ruins of ancient cities in the district of Gundogmus, 182 km from Antalya. The important ruins are those of Hagiasophia city, 7 km north of Guzel Bag Bucagi, but no excavations have been conducted here. There are also the ruins of Asar at Sumene (7 km from the city centre), Kese (2 km east of the village of Senir) and Gedfi (11 km southwest of Gundogmus).
Other places to visit in the area include the Cem Pasa Camii; the ruins on top of Sinek Mountain, 15 km east of the city centre between Gundogmus and Pembelik; and the ruins of Kazayir at Tasagir, on the Gundogmus – Antalya highway.
Situated 180 km from Antalya, Gazipasa is a charming little town with a beach 10 km long, beautiful forests and turquoise blue coves. Iskele, the site of the Koru and Kahyalar beaches, is an important breeding ground of the caretta caretta turtles. Mostly undeveloped up until the present time, Gazipasa is on its way to being an attractive tourist centre with accommodation, recreation facilities, an airport and yacht harbour still under construction, as well as the natural and historical treasures of the area.
Antiocheia Ad Cragum 18 km east of Gazipasa, and within the village of Guney, these ruins gets its name from the Commagene King Antiochus IV, and are found on the three hills that stretch out towards the sea. It has the ruins of a castle dating back to the Roman and Byzantine era, a column-lined boulevard, agora, baths, victory arch, a church and the city necropolis. The barrel-vaulted memorial tombs with their pre-entrance porticoes are well preserved and reflect a style peculiar to the region.
Adanda (Lamos) This ancient city is located 15 km northeast of Gazipasa, and was founded 2 km north of the present-day village of Adanda, on top of a high and steep hill. It is a walled city with a large tower south of the city gate, and among the ruins are a fountain carved into the living rock and two temples. Other significant ruins are the tombs in the necropolis made of single pieces of carved stone. These remains are a good representation of the culture and art of the mountainous Cilician region.
Nephelis This ancient ruin can be reached by going through the village of Muzkent 12 km out on the Gazipasa-Anamur road and taking the gravel road south for about 5 km. The southern area is surrounded by the sea and steep cliffs. The city consists of the acropolis and the remains of dwellings spread out in an east-west fashion. The only standing structures date back to the Roman and Byzantine periods and include a Medieval Castle, a temple, a musical hall, irrigation system and the necropolis.
Selinus Located on the slopes southwest of Hacimusa Creek by Gazipasa Beach, the ancient city of Selinus is one of the most important cities in the mountainous Cilician region. On top of the hill is the acropolis as well as the walls and towers of a medieval castle, which are fairly well preserved. In the Acropolis, a church and cistern have survived the ravages of time. The other buildings of Selinus are near the beach and on the slopes, among which are the baths, agora, Islami Yapi (mansion), aqueducts and the necropolis. Most of the bones in the Alanya Museum were brought from the Necropolis and allow the workshop in the museum to exist.
Situated on the plane formed by the silt carried down from the mountains by Alakir Creek and Gavur Brook, Kumluca is surrounded by the towns of Finike and Elmali. In the upper reaches of Alakir Creek fed by the springs coming from Onemli Mountains and the Beydaglar Mountains, there are trout and striped mullet.
How to Get
By Road : Antalya is easily accessed from most parts of the country, and the main bus station (Yeni Garaj) is 4km north of the city centre. Major routes include Istanbul (12 hours), Fethiye (8 hours), Izmir (9 hours) and Goreme (10 hours). The best route from Istanbul and Ankara is through Afyon and Burdur. In addition to the large buses and long-distance journeys, which leave from the Sehirlerarasi Terminali, there are also dolmus services to places like Kas, Alanya, Olympos and Side, from the Ilceler Terminali, although these are not air-conditioned. Most bus companies have a free shuttle service from the bus station into the city centre.
Bus station Tel: (0242) 331 12 50 / 513 26 50
Fax: (0242) 331 11 81.
By Rail : The nearest station is at Burdur.
By Air : Antalya airport is 10km east of the city centre, and has direct flights from Tel Aviv and Zurich. It is well connected to other parts of Turkey, and in summer has eight daily direct flights from Istanbul and two from Ankara.
Airport Tel: (0242) 330 32 33. 330 3600.
Fax: (0242) 330 31 30
By Boat : The marina is one of the most important in Turkey, and the Kaleici certainly one of the most photographed, lying at the foot of the old part of the city. Apart from private yachts sailing in from all over the world, there are passenger ferries to Girne (Northern Cyprus) and Rhodes.
Turkish Maritime Lines
Tel: (0242) 241 11 20.
Fax: 247 50 95
Tel: (0242) 243 47 50.
Fax: 243 47 54
Tel: (0242) 259 12 00
Where to Visit
MUSEUM, HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL ITEMS
Antalya Museum : Founded in 1922 by Süleyman Fikri Erten and housed first in the Alaaddin Mosque in the old city and then in the Yivli Minaret, the museum was later moved to its current location. The museum consists of 12 exhibit rooms and its gardens and open galleries. In these halls the history of Antalya is given in a chronological and instructive fashion starting with the first humans and continuing without interruption to the modern era.
Museum Tel: (+90-242) 238 56 88-89
Kaleici : Today the historical old city of Antalya known as Kaleici (the inner castle) is surrounded by two walls, most of which have fallen down. The inner wall encloses the harbour in a semicircle. As a result of restoration, Kaleici has turned into a major tourist centre with guest-houses, bars, shops and restaurants, and the Roman harbour has been turned into a modern, well-equipped marina. As a result of the restoration work, the Ministry of Tourism was awarded the Golden Apple (Tourism Oscar) in April 1984 by FIJET.
Antalya Museum : Founded in 1922 by Suleyman Fikri Erten and housed first in the Alaaddin Mosque in the old city and then in the Yivli Minaret, the museum was later moved to its current location 2 km further east. The museum consists of 12 exhibition rooms and its gardens and open galleries. In these halls the history of Antalya is given in chronological order, starting with fossils, through the Stone and Bronze ages, then through the classical and Hellenistic periods. There are mosaics, the Gallery of the Gods, Phrygian ornaments, and a room with Christian art that includes pieces of the skull and jawbone of St Nicholas, the original Santa Claus. The ethnography section has a collection of Iznik ceramics, household implements and weapons. Museum Tel:(+90-242) 238 56 88-89
The City Walls : What remains today are a few bastions inside the city as well as Hadrian’s Gate and its towers, the large tower facing the harbour and a few pieces of the harbour walls. One of the walls surrounds the yacht harbour and the other the city, almost like horseshoe. One of the remaining towers in the Castle Gate Square is now used as a clock tower. There are four gates in the city walls, which form entrances to the city.
Hadrian’s Gate : The only city gate to have survived until the present day is the most attractive of the Pamphylia: Uckapilar (Three Gates), also known as Hadrian’s Gate, which is guarded by one tower on either side. Built to honour the emperor Hadrian’s visit to the city in 130 AD, the whole gate, except for the columns, is made of pure white marble. The reliefs and carvings are extraordinary.
Old Houses of Antalya : With its hot summers and mild winters, the houses in Antalya are designed to provide protection not against the chill of winter but against the merciless heat of summer. The stone overhangs and courtyards help provide air circulation. The houses in Antalya can be divided into three types based upon the design of the main hall, which also serves as a storage area. The three types are I halls, L halls and U halls. In the design of these houses, great attention was paid to meeting the necessities of daily life, while also providing harmony with nature and the environment.
Perge : Situated 18 km east of Antalya, Perge is in the city limits of Aksu Bucagi. Because of its location on the Cilicia – Pisidia road, it was a vital part of the province of Pamphylia, and was founded around the same time as the other cities in the area (7th century BC). It was an important city for Christians of Perge who had worshipped the mother goddess Artemis. St. Paul and Barnabas visited the city and wealthy benefactors like Magna Plancia had a number of important memorials built here.
The first excavations began in 1946 by Istanbul University and they resulted in many important discoveries: The theatre consists of three main sections: the seating, orchestra and stage. It held 12,000 spectators, with 19 rows of seats on the lower section, 23 on the top section, and a 52-metre stage.
The stadium measures 34 square metres, with 13 rows of seats on top of the vaults. The eastern and western sides have 30 vaults each and the northern side has 10. For every three vaults there is an entrance to the stadium, and the other two were used as shops.
The Agora was the commercial and political centre of the city, with shops surrounding the central courtyard, some of which have mosaics on the floor. The agora measured 76 square metres, with a circular structure in the centre with a diameter of 13.40 metres.
The colonnaded boulevard lies between the Hellenistic Gate and the nympheum on the slopes of the acropolis. On both sides of the street, 20 metres in width, are porticoes, some up to five meters high, behind which are shops. The street is divided into two by a 2-metre wide water canal running through the middle.
Other structures include the necropolis, city walls, gymnasium, Roman Baths, memorial fountain and the Greek and Roman gates.
Termessos : The ruined city of Termessos, lying 34km west of Antalya in a rugged mountain valley, was founded by the Solymi people, from the interior of Anatolia. Among the important remains are the 4200-seat theatre and the Roman stele that Augustus had built at the beginning of the first century AD. The Odeon, the covered meeting hall, has seating for 600 people. The five inter-connecting underground cisterns were used for the storage of water and olive oil.
Other important remains include the Agora, with an open western side and other sides colonnaded; the heroic memorial of Hereon on top of a 6-metre high platform; the Corinthian-style temple, the Temple of Zeus, the Lesser and Greater Temples of Artemis, the gymnasium and the watch towers. In addition, there are more than 1200 rock tombs.
Olympos : Lying between Kemer and Adrasan is the ancient harbour village of Cirali, the ruins of Olympos and the site of the Chimaera. The history of Olympos dates back to the 2nd century BC when it was an important Lycian city, although it was empty by the 6th century. The Olympians worshipped Hephaestos (Vulcan) the god of fire, probably connected to the eternal flame, or Chimaera, which still emerges from the mountain. Known also as Yanartas (burning stone), the flame is caused by the burning of natural gas emerging from the mountain. Apart from the ruins, Olympos is well known for its simple treehouse camps, where most tourists stay, and a natural environment thanks to forests and vineyards near to a beautiful beach.
Ariassos : The ancient remains of Ariassos, around 50km from Antalya, are located on a slope and contain baths and rock tombs.
Phaselis : On the coast, 60km south of Antalya, Phaselis was founded by the Rhodians in the 7th century BC, and was known as the most important seaport in Eastern Lycia. On the west of the city is Hadrian’s Gate, with shops and baths on either side. The city is accessible both by road and sea.
Limyra : Believed to have been in existence since the 5th century, Limyra is still in existence despite a massive earthquake in the mid 19th century although was emptied in the 7th and 9th centuries after the Arab invasions. The city, which is 11km south, composes of three section; the acropolis, areas of settlement, and necropolis.
Arycanda : Excavations of this city reveal that it probably existed from the 5th century BC, and controlled much of the Arycanda valley. Having survived a destructive earthquake in 240 AD, the city maintained its prominence until the 11th century, and its most important structures still survive today.
Demre (Myra) : Demre was one of the most important cities of the Lycian civilisation. 25km west of Finike and 48km east of Kas, Demre was a place of settlement from the 5th century BC. The city was deserted in 9 A.D after the invasions of the Arabs. Rock tombs, theatres and the Church of St. Nicholas (said to be the original Santa Claus) are the most interesting sites in the town today.
Simena (Kale) : Receiving its beauty from its history, sea and sun, Simena is accessible from Ucagiz. The submerged city and the ancient remains at the opposite island of Kekova island, make it a worthwhile trip. There are traces of Roman and other civilisations in Simena, the history of which dates back to Lycian civilisation. There is a small theatre carved into the rock, and Roman city walls.
Manavgat of Antalya city is a tourism center, where history and nature are within eachother and all kinds of tourism activity can be performed.
How to Get
Connection of Manavgat province with other centers is only maintained by road. Bus companies within province are maintaining transportation to other cities and provinces from Antalya at west and Alanya at east. Bus companies in Manavgat and Side coaching station, are increasing their bus voyages according to tourist number, which increases during summer months. Alternative minibus voyages are organized from province to Manavgat Waterfalls, Side, Sorgun like visitable places.
Coach Station Tel: (90 242) 753 13 67
Where to Visit
Waterfall, which are 3 km. north of Manavgat province, have the same name with province. It composes a valuable to see panorama with its high flow on a wide area although it falls from an amazing height. Just near to the waterfalls, you can picnic in the nature and can eat fresh fish in surrounding restaurants.
Hamam of the antic agora, remaining from 5th and 6th century A. D., against the agora, which belongs to Roman Period, is restored on 1960 / 61, and turned into a museum.
Most of the pieces of art exhibited within the Museum, are the findings revealed during the excavations performed between 1947 and 1967 in Side antic city by Prof. Dr. Arif Müfid Mansel. From Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantium Period; inscriptions, gun relieves, Statues, torsos, tombs, portraits, ostotexes, amphorae, altars, tomb stalls, column heads and column pedestals, which are the copies of Greek originals, built in Roman Period, are being exhibited.
Side, which is 7 km. away from Manavgat, is an ancient settlement center. Side, which is mentioned by historians as founded on 1405 A. D., had met with the reigns of Lydian, Persian, Alexander The Great’s, Antiogonous’s, Ptolemaioses, respectively beginning from the second half of VIth century A. D. After 215 A. D., The city, which is improved under supervision of Syrian Kingdom, and turned into a science and cultural center, had left to Bergama Kingdom on A. D. with Apameia peace, then had protected its independence with Eastern Pamphilya region, and reached to a great richness and prosperity with a huge commercial fleet.
It entered under Byzantium reign after Roman reign after 78 B. C. Side, which was a Bishop center during Vth and VIth centuries, had lived its greatest times during these years.
Main gate of the city, which has a unique labor, is between two towers. There are two main streets in Side province. These streets are samples of columned streets of Ancient Age. After passing city gate, flat stones adorned area is the starting point of this street. There are columned porticos beside both sides of these streets, and shops behind them.
There is a “Nymphaeum”, biggest historical fountain of Anatolia, against city gate, outside ramparts. A wide pool place is below this foundation. You can reach to a monumental structure, passing through a street after theater. This building with dimensions of 100×100 m., is an agora. Agora, which is the Bazaar area of the city, is surrounded by porticos and there are shops at three sides of it. There is a Gymnasium, surrounded by porticos and composed of three halls, on the street, south side of the Agora. In the main street at North – south direction, there is an arched structure, constructed during Roman Period. Importance of Side city’s theater, in connection with architecture, is its construction on arched places instead of a slope of a hill like other roman theaters.
Theater, which is composed of three divisions, cavea, orchestra and scene, is the biggest and most monumental one among Pamphylia theaters, and has a capacity of 20.000 spectators.
There are wide cemeteries outside of Side’s ramparts, and most important one of these, Western Necropolis, is 1,5 km. away. There are also temples and aqueducts in Side. Most important ones of the temples are Athena, Apollon and Men temples. Water of side is brought from Dumanlı source, within Oymapınar Dam Lake, approximately 25 km. away. This water transportation system is composed of ten aqueducts, of which some of them are two layered. Biggest one is near to Oymapınar and has 40 specs.
A huge Roman Hamam is turned into a museum, and hosts for most beautiful archeological pieces of art collection of the region. The city, which is reigned by Seljukians during XIIIth century, Hamitoğulları and Tekelioğulları during XIVth century, and finally Ottoman Empire during XVth century, was not a settlement during this period.
Although most parts of the city ramparts, which are holding structure and characteristics of Roman and Byzantium periods, has been demolished today, nearly all of the ramparts at land side had remained.
You can reach to Selge, which is an ancient mountain city, near to Köprü Stream (Eurymdon) at south slope of Toroslar, 35 km. north of Serik, from a 14 km. stabilized road with steep bends after Köprülü Canyon National Park. There are engraved rocks, coverin whole slope of the mountain and similar to Fairy Chimneys at Göreme on the road passing from köprülü canyon, which is very rich in connection to natural beauty.
City, which was belong to Psidia and then taken into Pampheylia territories, had been reigned by Lydia, Persia, Alexander the Great and Roman governments, respectively.
It is theater with 5 gates and 45 stairs at north is an important monument. At the south of rock engraved theater, stadium and gymnasium, and at west a Ionian type temple, whose ceiling is adorned with eagle décor, draws the attention. At the south of the stadium, there are Fountain and Agora. At the north of the ramparts lying southwest of the city, Artemis and Zeus monuments as well as necropolis present.
This antique city, which is 23 km. northeast of Side, and one hour away from Sinler Village by foot, is founded by Selevkos. There is a very beautiful natural appearance of the antic city, which is especially adorned with pine forests. From the city, which is placed on a hill, you can see all plains and sea.
Two storey agora, basilica, cistern and sewerage system can be mentioned as the sign of development of the city. Mosaics, which are revealed during the city excavations, are exhibited in Antalya Museum today.
Etenna, which is 29 km. north of Manavgat, is founded on the hill, which is at the upper part of today’s Sırt Village. At the top of the city, which is thought as a bishop center during Byzantium period, there is an Acropolis, which is composed of terraces surrounded by ramparts, and at the best preserved and highest slopes of the city. There is a Herron (a tomb for an exalted person) at the south of the city. Basilica, agora, church, hamam and cisterns are important historical ruins other than these.
When you go 9 km. to the west after Manavgat, you can reach to Alara Inn. It is constructed on 13th century, by Seljukians for maintaining commercial connection between capital city of south coasts, Alanya and Konya. This maintained the people, who were traveling with caravansaries and merchants for spending the night and rest securely and comfortably.
There are lots of plateaus on the Toros Mountains, which is divided into two by Köprüçayı Valley.
Most important ones are Güğlenpınar and Beloluk Plateaus, Avanos Beliği, in Tefekli Region, Gücer Plateau, Kesikbeli, Akçaalan Plateau, Topalceviz, Alıç and Demre Plateaus, Dumanlı Plateau as well as at the feet of the Bozburun Mountain İkiz Plateau. Most of the villagers are going to the plateaus for summer.
NATIONAL and NATURAL PARKS
Köprülü Canyon National Park
Location: The park is in the mountains 49km northeast of Antalya.
Transportation: Koprulu Kanyon National Park is in the Manavgat district of the Antalya province. The road along the coast from Antalya to Manavgat then passes through Tasagil and Beskonak.
Highlights: The Kopru River is ideal for rafting and camping, with trees along one side of the bank. It forms a valley between the villages of Bolasan and Beskonak, the walls of which are as high as 100m, and at 14km is the longest canyon in Turkey. Pine, cypress and cedar trees form the ecosystem of the area, and the Mediterranean cypress forest, at 400 hectares wide, is the most significant flora characteristic in the park. Hunting in the area has meant that the number of species of animals has decreased, and now the most significant wildlife includes deer, mountain goats, bears, foxes, wolves, rabbits and badgers. There are plenty of trout in various branches of the River Kopru.
Apart from the natural beauty, other places of interest include the ruins of the Roman city of Selge, 12km away. The site still has the remains of a theatre, agora, temples of Zeus and Artemis, and cisterns. The Oluk and Bugrum bridges connect the remains of the ancient stone road connecting Selge to Pamphlia.
Facililities: The River Kopru is an important area for watersports, and is ideal for rafting. Camping is also popular along the shady riverbanks, and there is food available.
Jeep – Safari
Tourism agencies in Antalya, Kemer, Side and Alanya are organizing Jeep Safari tours to Toros mountains. Daily tours are beginning at the early hours of the days, and continue till to the night with experiencing Offroad emotion.
There are wide areas for horse riding in some hotels. There are English, Arab and Haflinger horses. Horse riding and jumping courses are performed for hourly or daily visits. Meanwhile, tours through river or to mountains are organized for minimum three days and maximum seven days.
Köprüçay, Manavgat and Dragon rivers, as well as Cehennem Stream are perfect routes for rafting.
Don’t Leave Without
Visiting Side Ruins and Museum,
Seeing Manavgat Waterfall,
Aspendos: The ancient city, 48km east of Antalya, is most famous for its theatre, probably the best preserved in Asia Minor. It is still in use today, and stages the annual Aspendos Opera and Ballet Festival every summer. It was the scene of a huge bloody battle between the Persians and the Greeks in 469 BC, and then ruled by the Spartans 120 years later. The city became part of the Seleucid kingdom after the death of Alexander the Great, and then became part of the Roman province of Asia in 133 BC.
The famous theatre was built in the 2nd century AD, using a Roman design, and it is still intact. Ataturk was responsible for much of the restoration, who after visiting it declared that it should be used as a theatre rather than simply a museum.
In addition to the theatre, there is an acropolis on a hilltop, of which the nymphaeum and basilica are still fairly intact.
Opening hours: Summer 08.00 – 19.00; Winter 08.00 – 17.30.
Antalya’s province, Serik is including an important Pamfilya city, Aspendos. Aspendos Theater, which had reached today without corruption, and has perfect acoustic, is hosting important artistic activities today.
Serik city, is founded in two places, one at Belkıs Village (Aspendos) and other at “Sillion” (Koçhisar Hill), near to today’s Yanköy, of Bergama Kingdom on IInd century A. D. On 1817, due to being settlement regions very distant, it was named as “Seyrek” initially, and it is named as “Serik” on 1950.
Typical Mediterranean climate is reign in Serik, which is surrounded by Antalya at west, Manavgat at east, Bucak and Sütlüce Provinces at north, and Mediterranean sea at south. Summers are hot and dry and winters are warm.
Where to Visit
Pamfilya city, Aspendos is 48 km. east of Antalya. Aspendos can be reached with an asphalt separated from Antalya – Manavgat road. City is 8 km. east of Serik Province, at the place where Köprü Stream reaches plains from mountainous region, and is found on two hills, one is big and other is small, and one of the richest cities. Its first name is Estvadiiy as can be seen on the coins printed. Most powerful money in antic world is Aspendos coins.
City, which is founded at the beginning of 7th century B. C., had met with reigns of Persia, Antic Delos Marine Union, Alexander the Great, Byzantium, Seljukians and Ottomans. Aspendos, which is famous as an important harbor and commercial city with its position at the entrance of Evrimedon Stream, is famous with corn, rose tree made souvenirs, wine, salt and horse purchase. City is also famous with breeding the best horses of antic world.
Pieces of arts in Aspendos, had separated into two as Lower City Structures and Upper City Structures. There are agora, basilica meeting structure, nymphaeum and exedra between UpperCity Structures. Theater, stadion, hamams, aqueduct, temple and necropolis cn be mentioned between Lower City Structures. It is known that Aspendos ramparts are constructed within Hellenistic Period, and then repaired during Late Roman and Bizantium Periods.
Main structure that makes Aspendos artistic center, is theater. Aspendos Theater is the most undamaged theater, which came today from antic world. Architecture of the theater, which is established at the foot of a small hill, is Zenon, son of Thedoros of Aspendos. Its capacity is 15.000 persons. Its most important characteristic is its great acoustic. Theater is used as caravanserai during Seljukians period. Zig zag motifs on white desks, seen on some parts of stage building are belonging to Seljukian Period. Cavea part of the theater is semi circle planned, and is separated into two with a wide diasoma. A wide gallery, composed of 59 arches, surrounds all along the rear of upper cavea. Special lodges over the entrances at both sides of cavea are reserved for emperor’s family and society priestesses. First one of the sitting desks from orchestra belongs to senator, judge and foreign ambassadors, and second one belongs to the notables of the city. Women were generally sit on the upper desks, within part under gallery. Remaining parts is open for all natives of the city. Stage is the most impressive part of the theater.
There are five doors, maintaining actors to step into stage at the lower floor of two layered fasad, constructed from conglomerate blocks. Small doors at orchestra level were belong to vestibules where wild animals were closed. At the middle of the side architecture with columns at upper floor a wine god Dionysos relief, who is the establisher and protector of theaters, is decorated.
It is founded at north east of Perge, 12 km. inside the sea, at the middle of the plain, on a wide and shallow shaped steep and high hill. Antic city is reached after a 5 km. of road when turned from Eski Yörük Village, at 29th km. of Antalya – Alanya Highway.
The city, which is founded during IVth century B. C., and was a Bishop center during Byzantium period had lived the Seljukian periods. Slightly steep west side of the hill is surrounded with ramparts, remaining from Hellenistic era. These ramparts are completed with towers, gates and roads to city. Gate of the city is on the ramparts, at the west part of the hill. When you go upside of the hill at north east side house ruins, streets, at west, Selçuklu Mosque, Byzantium Church and cistern can be seen. At the south west foot of the hill, there is a theater with 8.000 persons capacity and an odeon adjacent to it.
Don’t Leave Without
Visiting Sillion Antique City.
Provincial Directorate: (+90 242) 343 27 60
Kekova : It is between Kaş-Demre. It is an ancient submerged city 500 m far from the Üçağız Village in Mediterranean.
Patara : It is on Kalkan-Fethiye road,nearly 10 km before Kalkan and is located at the south.. The colorful ceramics in the center of the city reveal that the history of the city reaches back to 5 B.C. Besides its being the birth place of St. Nicholas,it was one of the most important seaports during the times of Alexander the Great. Three gated city walls,one of which leads to Patara, was constructed by the governor Modestus in 110 . One of the most important remnants is the theater currently buried under the crystal clear sandy beaches of Patara.
Xanthos : Founded on the Xanthos river basin,Xanthos is the biggest and the most ancient city of Lycia. Having being remained independent till the invasions of the Persians in 4292 B.C,Xanthos tried hard to defend against the invasions;however, upon realizing the remote victory the people of Xanthos first murdered their women then commited suicide as a whole.Afterwards 80 family imigrating to the region refounded the city but approximately 100 years later the city was totally destroyed by a great fire. Reesatblished city thenceforth strengtened its connection with west and became an important center.Still the city can not be saved from misfortune. Upon resisting to the taxes of the Roman Brutus, the city was ruined and the people were dragged into war. And Xanthos became the city of catastrophe.
The city was founded around center of Lycia and outside it were the remnants of Roman city center. Roman theater and the findings at the west side of the theater still attracts the visitors. Harpy memorial on the rocks is one of the most important traces. Only the duplication of the work of art, the original of which is on exhibit in British Museum in England,can be seen in the region.
Kaş (Antiphellos) : One of the Lycian towns,Kaş took its name from the Greek word “Phellos” meaning stony place. With its well preserved rock tombs and theater, Kaş is a wonderful town on the Mediterranean coast.
Kas was one of the most important cities of Lycia, and is now a small resort with great historical interest. Its quaint town centre has a rocky waterfront, with good beaches nearby. There are watersports available in the area, like canoeing,jet-skiing, diving and paragliding, plus cavern diving, which uses technical equipment to explore the deep and dark caverns. For those who love travelling on the water, the Mavi Yolculuk (Blue Voyage) tours, and other excursions on boats, can be madeto the surrounding islands.
Habesos is the earliest known name of the ancient city, as proved from archaeological findings. But the name Antiphellos is far more familiar, and this was the harbour of ancient Phellos. Excavations here have revealed a settlement dating back to the4th century BC, possibly earlier, although it reached its height of importance during the Roman and Byzantine periods, when it was a centre for Bishops. It had also been significant in the world of sea-faring commerce, and during the Roman era wasespecially famous for its exported sponges. It was attacked by Arabs, then added to the territory of the Anatolian Seljuks, and took the name Andifli. After the destruction of the Anatolian Seljuk state, the Ottomans added it to its lands. The name Kas means ‘eyebrow’, or ‘something curved’,describing the shape of the town under the backdrop of 500m high cliffs behind.
Summers are hot and dry in Kas, quite typical of Mediterranean region, and can reach around 35 degrees during the day. Winters are warm during the day although can get cool at night, and can drop below 10 degrees.
How to Get
Kas is accessible from Fethiye, or from Antalya. If coming from Ankara, it is much quicker to take the route through Elmali and Gombe, rather than the Antalya coastal route. There are services to Istanbul (12 hours), Antalya (4 hours), and Fethiye(2½ hours), and dolmuses make the shorter journeys to the beaches of Patara, Kalkan and Kapitas. The bus station is on the north side of town.
Bus Station Tel: (0242) 836 1020
Kas is 192 km from Antalya Airport and 160 km from Dalaman Airport.
Antalya Airport Tel: (0242) 330 30 30 – 330 36 00.
Dalaman Airport Tel: (0242) 792 5291
Where to Visit
An ideal place to escape the summer heat is Gombe, 60km north of Kas, in the cool plateau of the Akdag mountain range. The forest-covered route with pine and cedar trees almost conceal the village, famous for its cools springs and apple orchards.Akdag is the highest mountain in this range, reaching 3024m, and the villages of Yesilgol and Ucarsu are good for trekking. The herbs which grow in this area are used in local cooking and there are several restaurants in the main square. There is afamous festival of the local Tahtacis in June, and a farmers’ fair in late August.
A well-maintained and quiet harbour town, Kalkan is 25km west of Kas. It is an attractive town, once a fishing village occupied by the Ottoman Greeks. It has become increasingly popular since the 1980s, with a huge holiday village covering thesouthern hillside. The small town centre which overlooks the bay is filled with quaint, traditional white-washed houses, shuttered windows and balconies with brilliantly-coloured flowers. The marina caters for the requirements of visiting yachts, aswell as several restaurants and shops in the main centre.Yacht Marina Tel: (0242) 844 3204, fax: 836 1030.
Beyond Tlos, Saklikent is a spectacular gorge cut into the Akdaglar mountains. 18 km long, the sides are so deep and steep that no sun penetrates, so the water always remains icy cold. Access to the start of the gorge is along a wooden boardwalksuspended above the water, then after crossing the river, it is fairly straightforward to walk through the gorge for 6km. In the summer, there are tours arranged from Kas and Kalkan.Opening hours: Daily 08.00 – 17.00.
This is the original name of the ancient Lycian town, although there is little left of Antiphellos except a well-preserved ancient theatre and Lycian rock tombs. One of the most important of these ruins is the Monument Tomb, a Lychian inscribed tombmounted on a high base, dating back to 4th century BC, also called King’s Tomb. Another important item is the ancient theatre, dating back to 1st century BC which once had a capacity of 4000 people.
This well-preserved theatre is the only one in Anatolia to be overlooking the sea. It lies 500m west of the main square.Northeast of the theatre is a house-style tomb dating back to the 4th century BC. It has been constructed by cutting into the natural rock, lies 3.5m high with engravings of 24 girls dancing. Near Hastsane Caddesi, on the western coast of the town,there is a temple whose foundations date back to the Roman era.
Once a principle harbour of ancient Lycia, Patara was the birthplace of Apollo, according to Greek legend. This village covering a wide area on the eastern part of the harbour is 41km from Kas and has one of the best beaches in the area, a white goldenstretch around 20km long. Patara gained importance during the Byzantine period, because it was the birthplace of St Nicholas, the 4th century bishop better known as his other identity, Santa Claus. St Paul, one of Christ’s disciples, boarded a shipfrom Patara to Rome. The ruins lie 1km from the beach, and include several Lycian tombs, a basilica, Corinthian temple and a theatre. Access is possible by dolmus from most adjacent towns, although not at night. The Lycian Roman monuments can be seen when entering Patara. From the Vespasianus Hamam, constructed between 69 – 79 AD, the adjacent footpath reaches the main, marble-covered street of Patara. At the end of the street are the wide walls of theByzantine Castle, and east of that is the Corynth Temple. Patara Theatre, built in the 2nd century BC, is at the foot of the hill and had a capacity for around 10,000 people. It was filled with wind-swept sand but after cleaning revealed its structure, and archaeological excavations are still continuing. The beach is one of the longest in Turkey, with a width of up to 1500m. Declared a Special Environmental Preservation Region by the Ministry of the Environment, it is a major breeding area for the caretta-caretta sea turtles, and during thereproductive season there are strictly applied restrictions to preserve their habitat.
Along the east coast of the Esen River, 45km from Kas, Xanthos was the capital and grandest city of the Lycian Union, but has had a chequered history. Surface findings from the city acropolis reveals that the settlement dates back to the 8th centuryBC. Initial research was performed by Englishman Charles Fellows in 1838, which probably explains why the Nereidler and Harpyler monuments, the Payave Tomb and Aslani Grave were taken to the British Museum in 1842. The city walls were repaired during the Roman and Byzantium periods, and strengthened with additions to the width. At the south end, a gate dates back to 2nd century BC, and behind this there is Victory Arch belonging to Emperor Vesoasianus. To thesouthwest, the original settlement of the city is the Lychian Acropolis, now badly ruined, with a Byzantine Church.
Felen Plateau (Phellos)
The region of hills over the Felen Plateau, 12km from Kas, was a highly important city during the 4th century BC. Antiphellos was the harbour of Phellos, and some of the surrounding city walls still remain. Also surrounding the city is a tomb,decorated with reliefs, 4th century tombs and rock-cut graves.
Isinda, on the hills near Belendi village 13km from Kas, was a small Lycian city and surrounded by ramparts. In the middle of the city’s acropolis, two tombs with Lycian inscriptions are the main attractions. There are also many Lycian rock tombs fromthe Roman period.
This important plateau village is 20 minutes walks from Pirha ruins, an ancient city 850m above the sea. There are many rock graves, all facing the sea, and the tombs are more irregularly positioned. The statues and reliefs that were uncovered hereare now in the Antalya Museum.
80km from Kas, this is another important plateau village, with ruins 15 minutes walk away. Neiseus, the city’s Lycian name, is written on the theatre wall. In Nisa, there are ancient ruins from the Lycian and Roman periods, and on the front of some ofthe tombs there are images of spears, shields, women and men. Coins produced during this time are exhibited in Antalya Museum.
Kas has become an important diving centre which in turn is a significant part of the tourist industry for Turkish and foreign visitors. Diving clubs operate from the harbour, and compete with each other for accessing the oldest submerged ruins of theMediterranean. The area has arguably the best visibility and variety of sea life along the Turkish coast, and the relatively short distance to the dive sites means that half-day trips are very popular. Weekends during the summer can get very busy, asit offers some of the cheapest diving areas in the country. There are many impressive sea caverns around Kas which are accessible through diving. These include: Kekova Island, Asirli Island, Guvercin Inn, and Mavi Cavern, which is the most famous.
The Esen river, 45km from Kas, is a great place for canoeing, with several agencies in the area supplying equipment and organising tours. Beginning at the Kinik region, a 15km paddle ends at Parara beach. The river is calm so it is a relatively easyjourney, with attractive surroundings of trees and foliage. The trip also includes breaks for food, swimming and mud baths. For canoeing in the sea, the best place is the village of Ucagiz, accessible from Kas by road. The four-hour organised tripinvolves paddling past unique bays, and the historical sites of the Submerged City and Simena, with breaks for swimming and food.
As Kas and the Lycian cities are close to each other, trekking is a popular way of exploring the region, with routes and maps available. Paths available for walking will go around the peninsula to Limanagzi, Gedife Hill, Phellos, Gokceoren, Mount Asaz,and the Gombe plateau. Kas is a good place to start the Lycian Way, Turkey’s first walking trail, which is a 30-day walk around the coast and mountains.
Kas is one of the most important stops on the Blue Voyage, as well as a good starting point, and exploring the coast between Kas and Bodrum on motor schooner or yacht is popular with visitors. The boats for hire around the Kas Harbour are usually wellequipped with water, electricity, gas, shower and laundry service often provided.
Kas had proved to be one of the best places in Turkey for hillside parachuting, mainly due to the geography and climate. There are good, reputable companies operating from the town, with modern equipment and qualified supervisors.
Kas has the cleanest and clearest waters in the Mediterranean with little or no pollution, so fishing has developed into quite a lucrative industry. The most common in this area arelobster, grey and red mullet, lobster, octopus and tuna. Recently,trout farms have been established around Gombe and Saklikent.
Out towards the southeast of town are the beaches of Kucukcakil, Buyukcakil and Akcagerme, which are quite stony. One of the nicest in terms of its tranquil location is Limanagzi, accessible only by boat, and surrounded by a tiny cove with olivetrees. The tiny beach of Kaputas is 19km away, and lies at the bottom of 192 rocky steps from the road, giving it a unique setting when viewing it from a distance. It too is quite stony, and the current can be very strong, but an attractive andrelatively peaceful place for picnics and sunbathing.
What to Eat
Eating in Kas is quite typical of the Mediterranean. Fresh agricultural products are grown in the region every season, and the fish is especially common. Karakovan honey and pine honey, and molasses made from carob is readily available and found inthe Friday Market. In restaurants around town, there is a great selection of Turkish cuisine and seafood.
What to Buy
Hand-made small carpets and textiles are produced regionally, especially the unique barak carpets, and woven goat-hair products. Walnut trees are made into dowry chests, rolling pins and wooden spoons, and are characteristic of the area. There aremany shops along Uzun Carsi (Long Market) in the town centre, selling carpets, handicrafts, and designer clothing. The Friday Market, held in a large open field to the north of town, has a great selection of fresh fruit and vegetables, cheeses, olivesand honey produced from the surrounding villages, as well as hand-woven fabrics.
Don’t Leave Without
Visiting surrounding antic cities,
Seeing the submerged city of Ucagiz on a boat tour,
Trying adventure sports like hillsideparachuting and diving,
“Buying locally made barak kilims (small carpets)” ,
Tasting Karakovan Honey, carob molasses,
Shopping for fresh produce and fabrics at the Friday Bazaar.
Head Official’s Office: (+90 242) 836 10 04
Municipality: (+90 242) 836 10 20
Tourism Information Office: (+90 242) 836 12 38
Police: (+90 242) 836 25 96
Gendarme: (+90 242) 836 10 07
Hospital: (+90 242) 836 1185
Harbor Directorate: (+90 242) 836 10 39
Coastal Guard: (+90 242) 836 24 55
MOSQUES AND TOMBS
Important mosques in the area are Yivli Minaret Complex, Kesik Minaret Camii, Bali Bey Camii, Muratpasa Camii, Iskele Camii, Karatay Medrese, and Ahi Yusuf Camii and Tomb.
Antalya Mosques and Churches
YİVLİ MINARET (Alaaddin Mosque, Center): It is in the city center of Antalya. It is the minaret of Alaaddin Mosque, which was converted into a mosque in 1230 by Seljuk Sultan, Alaaddin Keykubad.Catching one’s eyes at the first look, Yivli Minaret considered as a symbol of the city. As its structure is cut up into slices by bricks, and constructed with 8 pieces of semi – cylindrical shape, it is named as Yivli Minaret. Very thick body had gained an aesthetic structure due to these grooves. Turquoise and dark blue colored Allah and Mohammad words are written to every direction of the floor.
Kesik Minare Mosque (Korkut Mosque – Cami – i Kebir, Center): Seljuk Period piece of art, the mosque was previously constructed as Panagelia Church in the name of Virgin Mary by Byzantium during 5th A.D., and turned into a mosque by Şehzade Korkut during Bayezit II. It is also known as Korkut Mosque or Cami-i Kebir due to this reason. It is renamed as Kesik Minaret as the mosque was destructed after the a fire in 1851.
Kale Mosque (Sultan Süleyman Mosque, Alanya): It is at west side of the shipyard of Alanya. It was constructed by Seljuk Sultan, Alaaddin Keykubad I. As it was re-constructed by Sultan Süleyman between 1530 and 1566, it is also known as Sultan Süleyman Mosque.
Saint Nicholas Church (Kale – Demre): Myra (Demre) is known as the place where Saint Nicholas, known as Santa Claus (Father Christmas) in Christianity world, had performed his duty as a bishop. Moreover the church was constructed during 6th century as a memorial to Saint Nicholas after his death. Some remnants of Saint Nicholas tomb which has been stolen to Bari city by Italian sailors during the second half of our century are currently exhibited in the Antalya Museum. International Santa Claus (Father Christmas) Festival organized every year in Kale(Demre) and Kaş between December 6-8 turn into a symposium where foreigners have also participated in Antalya recently.
Aya Yorgi Church (Alanya): It is thought that the church within the Alanya Castle, was constructed by Byzantium during VIth century A. D.
Evdir Han The first stopping point on the road leading north from Antalya is the Evdir Han, lying 18km from the centre of Antalya, a rectangular structure made of cut stone and rubble. Its most interesting feature is the sharply pointed portal. Keykavus I had the han built between 1210-1219 AD.
Kirkgoz Han Kirkgoz, 30 km from Antalya, is extremely well preserved, and although built by one of the sultans departs from the traditional style of their usual hans. It is made from cut stone and rubble.
CAVERNS OF ANTALYA
The cavern is at the Geyikbayırı village which is 26 km to Antalya. In order to reach Geyikbayırı village, Çakırlar Köyü which is to the west from Antalya could be used. To reach the cavern, a 5 minute trekking from the center of the village is enough.
Properties: The deepest point of the cave with a total length of 120 m is 6.5 meters in respect to the entrance. The cavern was found precious enough for cave tourism and the studies are still progressing. The cavern displays generally dry characteristics but it is sometimes in the kind of active cavern. It is completely dry in summer months. In precipitant seasons, as the floor water level rises, the floor of the cavern is flooded. The temperature inside the cavern is mostly cool according to the open air in summer. In Autumn, the temperature displays equivalence with the open air temperature.
The cave is found inside the borders of Yağca Village which is at 5 – 6 km. distance to the old Antalya – Burdur highway, 30 km northwest of Antalya.
Properties: The Karain cave which is one of the greatest natural caves of Turkey, is 150 m high from the travertine valley in front, ve430-450 m. high from the sea.
The cave stands in the period of the beginning of the history of the mankind, as the cavern was continuously accommodated by early humans during the prehistoric and classic periods starting from lower Paleolithic, medium and high Paleolithic, Neolithic, Calcolithic and Ancient Bronze stages. As a natural result of this, the cavern contains a thick cultural layer which can be 11 meters. But the longest and most important accommodation period of the cave is relevant with the Paleolithic period.
The usage at the classical period is more likely as an Offering Cave(Temple) and there are Greek inscriptions and niches at the cave exterior walls and ceiling. The archeological findings discovered from the archeological excavations done inside Karain Cave are displayed at the Antalya Museum and at the Karain Museum which is just near the cave.
The cave is on the 45 km. north of Antalya at Indag Mountain. It is possible to reach Kocain Cave by Karatas – Camiliköy – Ahirtas Village road which is branched from Burdur-Antalya highway at least 20 km away from Antalya city.
Properties: The cave contains the widest entrance and one section largest gallery of Turkey. There are 50-60 m. high pillars and a cistern from the Roman period inside the cavern. The cave was formed from two extremely large saloons and the entrance is 35×70 meters wide.
The cave is at the falezli coast of Atatürk Park in Antalya. To
It is at the southern slope of Alakaya Hill (661m.), which is the continuance of Tünek Tepe (618m.) towards southwest.
Properties: The kind of the cave is dry and horizontal and the total length of the cave is 74 m, and the deepest point of the cave in respect to the entrance is 27.5 m. After a narrow entrance, the cave continues towards northwest with an approximate inclination of 25º. Towards the end of the cave, the frequency of travertine stalactites and stalagmites are increased. As the karstic floor waters stay at higher parts, the cave is always dry. The cave is chilly when compared with the open air. When the temperature of the open air is 20ºC, it is 17ºC at the end of the cave.
It is at the sideways of the stairs descending to the sea from the rear garden of the Antalya City Club.
Properties: The cave is at the middle of the travertine step descending towards the sea, at 20 m. height from the sea. The total length of the cave is 149 meters. There is no water or pond inside the cave. The development of the cave had been halted. The cave floor had become rough ground with climbs and downwards and sometimes becomes very narrow because of the rock blocks falling from the ceiling of the cave. The number of the stalactite and stalagmites are at very low numbers. There is no air current.
The Papazkayası cave is totally formed among a crack in the direction of north – south. Antalya travertine, are related completely with Cuaterner, possibly Pleistocene periods with their average thickness of 250-300 m. The cave is located below the shore cliff of 40 m. height.
Properties: The cave, with the total length of 110 m. has the deepest point at 27 meters in respect to the cave entrance. The development of the cave had been halted. Because of the connection with the sea, the cave could be called as “marine cave” The cave is dry. The floor of the saloon having the connection with the sea is partially covered with sea water. The temperature of the cave is relationally chilly when compared with the open air.
The Yerköprü Cave is formed by the collapsing of a cave with initial minimum length of 150 meters among the east – west direction totally inside Antalya travertine.
It is planned to be utilized as cafeteria, casino or restaurant because of its size.
Location: Antalya, Akseki
The cave is located at the western slope of the deep and very steep Manavgat Valley which is to the east of Ürdünlü village of Akseki District. It takes about one hour of walking to the cave from the village.
Properties: The cave, with the total length of 2500 m. has the highest point at +101 meters in respect to the cave entrance. It is a horizontal and partially active cavern. As the lower and medium parts of the cavern are sometimes active, small lakes are formed at the dry seasons most of the time. The upper level is always dry. The air of the cave is very humid and the average temperature is around 16-18ºC. No animal groups drawing attention are encountered.
Altınbeşik Cave is one of the most beautiful caves of Turkey. The karstic topography of the environment and the pine forests exhibit a marvellous spectacle. The cave is at the exit end of a very long and big underground system. This big system pulling Kızılova, Kambos and Söbücesuyu ends at the Altınbeşik – Düdensuyu Cave under the Oruç Sinkhole Cave. Therefore, this underground water system with a length exceeding 100 km is one of the longest and biggest karst systems of the world.
Big rock blocks are interesting at the high levels of the cave which loose the activity totally. Among these there are stalactite and stalagmites. The first 200 meters via the cave entrance forms the lower level and is permanently under water. Through the end of the lower level, there is a steep climb of 40 m. This climb and adjasent walls are covered with thick travertine of white color. This forms the most beautiful location of the cave. .
Location: Antalya, Akseki District
The cave is located near the Eynir Polje, which is approximately at a distance of 12-13 km. to Aydınkent (İbradi) in northwest. It is approximately at 500 – 600 m distance to the road, at the right side after trespassing Başlar village. But reaching the cave is very hard because of the big limestone blocks on the path.
Properties: After entering the cave, in the first course, a descend from a mouth at 25 m width by stairs is necessary. Especially in spring, it is hard and dangerous to proceed forward with boat because of the high amount of water inside and because of the presence of the sharp and pointed limestone tips at the cave surface. In August, the water level falls and small lakes are formed.
Location: Antalya, Akseki District
The cave is located at the southwest edge of the Akseki Polje. The track separated from the Akseki-Bucakkışla road at 4th kilometer passes very near to the cave.
Properties: Although the cave has horizontal localities, it mostly develops vertically and decreases down to 155 meters like stairs.
Koca Düden, which drains the surface waters of Akseki Polje river basin is developed on an important fault line formed by the Upper Creates Limestone. Koca Düden holds numerous lakes within and ends with a closed siphon.
Oruç Düdeni Cave
Location: Antalya, Akseki District
The cave is on the path of the incoming underwater flows to Altınbeşik – Düdensuyu Cave.
Properties The total length is 52 meters. It is about the collapse because of the operation caused by the underwater creek passing through the lower levels of the cave.
Dim (Gavurini) Cave
Location: Antalya, Alanya District
The cave is located at the locality of Kuzkaya village. It is at the west slope of the Cebireis mountain (1691 m.) at the east of Alanya. Reaching the cave by walking is possible either via the Dim creek valley or via the Yaylalı village at the south. To reach the cave from Yaylalı village, a walk of 50 minutes following the watering channels at the skirts of the Cebireis mountain is required.
Properties The total length of the cave is 357 meters and the cave is horizontal and dry. There is only a quiet small lake towards the end of the cave.
Dim cave is one of the most beautiful caves of Turkey. It is suitable for a visit as is at the vicinity of Alanya and as the environment is covered with forests and picnic sites. Because the cave was used as a shelter by prehistoric and historic periods, the cave was called as “Gavurini Cave” by the local people.
The cave is an under – rock shelter located at the 40th kilometer of the coastal highway between Antalya – Kemer, just after the Çamdağ tunnel. It is at the locality of Oba village.
Properties: The cave is at 25 m. height from the coast and is in the shape of a shelter. As the cave is damaged extensively by natural destruction, the filling layers are flown away by rain waters and winds.
6 layers containing totally Mesolotic cultures were determined. The cultures found inside this cave display similarities with the alizarin, solitarian and tardenovasior cultures of Europe. At the excavations, Flintstones tools belonging to Upper Paleolithic and Mesolotic periods were obtained. Also, at the walls of this under – rock shelter, human, mountain goat and deer drawing sketches are present. The cave is an archeological side which is continuously open to local and foreign tourists.
Büyük Dipsiz Cave
The cave is located at the south slope of Alakaya Hill (661 m.) which is at the west of Antalya port 3 km. southwest of Tünek Hill.
Properties: The cave, with the total length of 40 m. has the deepest point at 29 meters in respect to the cave entrance. As the karstic floor water is present at the above layers, the cave is dry. The cave is more chilly than open air. The temperature outside is 20ºC at the beginning of November though the temperature inside the cave is 17ºC.
The cave is formed between the Creates aged residual limestone and by the conglomerate limestone formations of the same age just below this layer. After a narrow entrance, with an average slope of 25º the cave proceeds towards north.
Location: Antalya, Alanya District
The cave is located inside the borders of Alanya and is at the coast. It is 3 km away from the city center.
Properties: The total length of the cave is 30 m. and is dry ve horizontal. It covers an area of total 200 m. The cave is 15 meters high and has a marvelous vision formed by numerous stalactite and stalagmites. With the carbon dioxide gas, high humidity, low temperature and radioactive atmosphere, the cave is extremely beneficial for asthmatic patients. Therefore the asthmatic patients form the most dense visitor groups. The formation period of the stalactite and stalagmites inside the cave are estimated to be between BC 20.000-15.000 years.
The cave is located inside the Atatürk Park which is between the Konyaaltı Street and coast.
Properties: The total length of the cave is 124 m. and the deepest point in respect to the entrance is at 35.65 meters. The cave is vertical. As the south section of the cave is inside the sea, it could be named as “marine cave”. The cave is dry and its development had been halted. The sections which are at the sea are covered with the partially salted sea water.
There are a small amount of stalagmite and wall travertine developed at the grand hall though towards south the amount of stalagmite ve stalactite increases. In this section, sweet water springs gush out of cracks and mix to sea water. There is a second exit to the 40 m west of the main entrance. With the width of 0,5 meters ve1 meters length, the entrance is seen as a widened crack.
Air is relatively chilly in respect to open air in summer.
Location: Antalya, Alanya District
Çimenini cave is located at the vicinity of Şıhlar (old name Şeyhler) village, at the southern skirts of Cebireas mountain , to the east of Alanya. Reaching to the Şıhlar village is by the 15 km stabilized road branched from Konya- Gazipaşa highway in Demirtaş sub district and from this village the cave is at a short walking distance. There are historic remains and traces of Romans around the vicinity of the cave.
Properties: The Total length of the cave is 10 meters and except for a steep climb it is totally horizontal. Because the thickness of the limestone in which the cave has developed is in a limited and congested area, the cave is totally dry hydrological. The atmosphere of the cave is relatively chilly when compared with open air. The average temperature is around 17ºC – 20ºC.
The cave has been formed by numerous connected chambers and two layers. The cave has a single aperture among the direction of East, Southeast – West initially and later the chambers were formed as the aperture was divided by travertine pillars. There are numerous chambers at the primary section and is completely horizontal.
The cave then proceeds to the second section via a steep climb of + 57 meters. This section of the cave is +10 meters higher than the entrance and is formed by two big chambers. The cave is extremely rich on the basis of travertine deposition. The travertine pillars forming the chambers cover most of the space. The side walls are decorated with drapery travertine.
This cave is interesting because of the beauties of the natural formations and accompanying historic remains in the vicinity. The usage at the historic periods ware understood though no written documents were revealed by the recent studies. The cave has not been involved in the touristic locations.
Location: Antalya, Manavgat District
The cave is located to the east of Mahrumçalı quarter which is to the east of Gebecek village northeast of Manavgat. Reaching the cave is possible via all sorts of vehicles.
Properties: The total length of the cave is 157 m. and the deepest point in respect to the entrance is at – 36 meters. The cave is semi horizontal and semi active. Water flows inside the cave only in the precipitant seasons. The temperature of the cave in summer months is around 16 – 18ºC.
Geology – Geomorphology The cave is developed at the contact point between the Cebireis formation and the Mahmutlar formation which is below. The cave is inside the dolomithic limestone and over the micaschist layers and dives towards south by 15 degrees concordant with the curvature of both layers.
Location: Antalya, Kemer District
The cave is located at the Gedelme Plateau locality. There is a road connecting Kemer district to Gedelme plateau. With a short walk of approximately 4 minutes is necessary to reach to the cave entrance from the village center. There is a historic wall and ruins belonging to Byzantium at 65 m. north of the cave.
Properties: The total length of the cave is 74 meters and the deepest point in respect to the entrance is at – 19 meters. The cave is dry and is mostly vertical.
Most part of the cave is dry. There is only a small lake at the end and the deepest point of the cave. The temperature of the cave is 17ºC in Autumn. As the cave entrance is relatively large, the temperature of the inner cave changes relatively to the conditions of open air.
There are stalactite, stalagmite and pillars developed inside the cave. The surrounding natural beauties and historic ruins makes the cave more attractive.
Location: The cave is located inside the area of Oymapınar Dam at Manavgat District, Antalya.
Properties: The cave has developed horizontally and is an active cave with a total length of 7 meters. The water level inside the cave rises in spring.
The cave had been discovered by encountering a natural gallery during the construction of injection galleries of the dam. As the cave has been developed inside Conglomerate, the cave has significant scientific value.
Location: Antalya, Kemer District
The cave is located between Yukarı Çamarası and Narlıgedik villages of Karacasu sub district. Reaching the cave from both of the villages is possible. A walk of 20 – 25 minutes from Narlıgedik village is necessary to reach the cave. The cave is close to the Aphrodisias ruins.
Properties: The total length of the cave is 348 meters (Main Gallery: 147 m.) and the deepest point in respect to the cave entrance is at -32 meters. It is a horizontal and dry cave.
The cave starts with a very narrow mouth. After 4 – 5 meters the main cave opening is reached. The saloon is divided into 5 – 6 sections by the pillars developed side by side and finally forming walls. All of the chambers connected to this saloon is decorated with stalactite, stalagmite and pillars. As the temperature outside is 28ºC and the relative humidity is 44 percent, the temperature inside the cave is 17ºC and the humidity amount is 85 percent.
Aslanlı (Yaren) Cave
Location: Antalya, Manavgat District
The cave is located at the Plateau locality of Kirazlı Village. In order to reach to Aslanlı Cave, a walk of about 30 minutes is necessary, starting from the Dereboğazı locality which is at the 3rd kilometer of Kirazlı – Kuşadası road.
Properties: The total length of the cave is 110 meters and the cave is partially horizontal, partially vertical. It is a dry cave. The temperature in October is 18ºC.
The cave has developed inside the dolomithic marble of Mesozoic age and on a large fault. After a steep downwards descent of 6 meters, the cave descends towards west with 26 degrees among a big fault roughly in the direction of east – west, and after 40 meters the cave enlarges and the floor looks like an inclined saloon. The floor of the saloon is covered with muddy ground and rock blocks fallen from the ceiling. The stalactite and stalagmites formed drapery and flag travertine on the walls. The name of the cave comes from one of the stalagmite which looks like a sitting lion.
NATIONAL AND NATURAL PARKS
Taurus Moutains With an elevation of at least 1000m, the Taurus Mountains are quite cool even in the summer and the people of Antalya and the nomadic Yoruk people spend their summers up here. The primary highland villages are Bakirli, Feslegen, Yesil Yayla and Saklikent.
Kumluca and the many coves between Antalya and Finike are home to some of the most famous holiday resorts in Turkey, like Kemer, Camyuva, Belek, Cirali and Adrasan. Closer to the city, Konyaalti is 3 km west of the city, and Lara beach is 10 km east and well connected by dolmus.
Skiing : Within the province of Antalya is a ski centre at Saklikent, in the Beydag mountain range, at 1850m. There are two ski lifts, restaurants, and accommodation available. The skiing season runs between January and April, and in the spring months it is possible to ski in the morning and then swim in the sea in Antalya.
Mountaineering : The Beydag mountain range has peaks ranging from 600 – 3086 m., with a variety of geological and typographical features and offer a wide range of climbing opportunities.
The important peaks are Tekedorugu, Bakirli Dag, Tahtalidag and Kizlar Sivrisi. Climbers will pass through the cedar forests of Camkuru Valley on their way to the top. The climbs can be completed in one day.
Rafting : Within the Koprulu Canyon National Park, Koprucay is among the most breathtaking rafting centres in the country. Manavagat River rushes powerfully over the rocks, and offers excellent rafting opportunities. There are a couple of agencies in the city who organise trips, including transport and equipment.
Diving : Various points of Antalya’s coastline provide opportunities for diving.
Hunting : Foreigners can only hunt in parties organised by Turkish travel agencies which have been authorised by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. These agencies provide all information concerning seasons, authorised zones, permits, weapons and ammunition. A list of agencies can be obtained from the Union of Travel Agencies (TURSAB).
more information, contact:
– Forest Ministry, National Parks and Wildlife General Directorate, Gazi Tesisleri No 11, Gazi, Ankara.
Tel : (312) 221 1769/212 6300.
Fax: 222 5140.
– Youth and Sport General Directorate, Hunting and Marksman Federation Ulus Ishani A Blok 4 Kat No 404, Ulus, Ankara.
Tel: (312) 310 6160/310 3960.
Fax: 310 6160.
Along the coasts and in the highlands there is an abundance of partridge, pheasant, pigeons quail and turtledove. In the rocky crags and down on the plane there are wild pigeons, woodcocks and blackbirds.
The wild ducks and geese that live in the lakes and ponds come down to the coast in the winter. In the forests along the coast are deer, fox, martin, roe deer, squirrels and mountain goats, while the mountains have bear and several species of wolf.
Fishing : Tourists may fish for leisure purposes in non-prohibited areas without a license. Amateur equipment and non-commercial, multi-hooked lines should be usedm and nets should not weigh more than 5 kg. Commercial fishing by foreigners carries heavy penalties. Details can be obtained from:
Orman Bakanligi, Su Urunleri Sb. Md. Gazi Tesisleri 11 Nolu Bina Gazi, Ankara.
Tel: (0312 212 6300.
There are endless varieties of fish in the waters around Antalya, from sea Bream to swordfish. In the semi-salty waters, where the rivers run into the sea, there is sea bass and striped mullet, as well as pike, plaice, crayfish, crawfish and lobster. The area is a paradise for trout fishing, and in the creeks where trout are in abundance, there are also bass, carp and eel.
Camping : There are several forest camps around the resort of Kemer, around 20 km south of Antalya. The following campsites all have good facilities:
Mico, tel: (0242) 814 1791 Ovedland, tel: (0242) 814 1645 Kindil Cesme, tel: (0242) 814 1075 Turban Camping Beldibi, tel: (0242) 824 8105
Antalya is dominated by two climates. The coastal area is typically Mediterranean with hot dry summers and mild rainy winters. The interior region has a transitional climate affected by Central Anatolia and the Mediterranean. In July and August, the temperature can reach 35 degrees, with minimal rainfall. Winters can get down to 4 degrees, and very rarely with it reach freezing point. The wettest months are December and January, with 250mm of rain per month. The average annual humidity is 61%.
Where to Eat
The nomadic people living in the rural areas raise wheat and animals, and it is these products which form the basis of the local cuisine. Though limited in scope there are fresh vegetables grown along the coast but as one moves into the interior, wheat and other crops become more common. The primary dishes which make up the modern diet are kolle (boiled wheat, beans, chickpeas), sautéed meat with vegetables, tomato civesi, hibes, arapasi, tandir kebab and the local jellies.
What to Buy
In Antalya, there are shopping malls that will have anything the foreign or local tourist could hope to find. The city is famous for its jams and jellies made from every fruit and vegetable imaginable. The most interesting ones are the eggplant, watermelon, bergamot and turunc jellies. There are also souvenirs and gift items particular to Turkey in the shops of the Ministry of Tourism and the Ministry of Culture and the shops in the old city. The area is famous for its Dosemealti carpets coloured with natural root dyes.
Don’t Leave Without
– Visiting the Antalya Museum
– Walking up the gorge at Saklikent
– Seeing the ruins at Perge and Termessos
– Walking through Kaleici and the old houses of Antalya
– Taking pictures of the snowdrops in Akseki
– Buying a Dosemalti carpet
– Tasting the local jams and jellies
Registered Immobile Cultural and Natural Heritages in Antalya
Archeological Sites: 197
Urban Sites: 6
Natural Sites: 42
Historical Sites: –
Archeological and Natural Sites: 20
Archeological and Urban Sites: 1
Cultural (at Single Construction Scale) and Natural Heritages: 1550
Tonguc Caddesi No: 21
Tel: (0242) 343 2760. Fax: 345 1506
Ozel Idare Alu 2
Tel: (0242) 241 1747
Fax: 241 1747
Bayindir Antalya Terminal C
Tel: (0242) 330 3600
Fax: 330 3346
Transport Bus station
Tel: (0242) 331 1250 / 513 2650
Fax: 331 1181
Antalya Airport : Tel: (0242) 330 3030 Fax: 330 3130
Turkish Maritime Lines : Tel: (0242) 241 11 20. Fax: 247 50 95
Kaleici Marina : Tel: (0242) 243 4750. Fax: 243 4754
Kusadasi Harbour : Tel: (0242) 259 1200
Tourism Police :
Kaleici Yat Limani
Tel: (0242) 243 1061 / 243 0486
Tel: (0242) 241 2010
University Teaching Hospital
Tel: (0242) 227 4480
Namik Kemal Bulvari 82
Tel: (0242) 345 1800
Fax: 335 2738
Kazim Ozalp Caddesi 55
Tel: (0242) 248 3870. Fax: 248 4297
Kazim Ozalp Caddesi
Seref Ishani 6/46
Tel: (0242) 321 2535
Fax: 321 6914
Genclik Mah. 1314 Sokak 6/8
Tel: (0242) 244 5313
Fax: (0242) 243 2095
Sitke Goksoy Appt 40/26
Tel: (0242) 241 7770
Fax: 241 7774
Antalya Governorship http://www.antalya.gov.tr/
Antalya Municipality http://www.antalya-bld.gov.tr/tr/index.html
Akdeniz University http://www.akdeniz.edu.tr/
Antalya Police Station http://saturn.spaceports.com/~policant/