HIS FAMILY & CHILDHOOD
He was born in 1881 in Salonica, then an Ottoman city, now in Greece. His father Ali Riza, a customs official turned lumber merchant, died when Mustafa was still a boy. His mother Zubeyde, a devout andstrong-willed woman, raised him and his sister. First enrolled in a traditional religious school, Mustafa soon switched to a modern one. In 1893, he entered a military high school where his mathematics teacher gave him the second name Kemal, which means perfection, in recognition of young Mustafa’s superior achievement. He was thereafter known as Mustafa Kemal.
MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATURK
On a day of 1881, a male child was born in a pink house located at the district of Ahmet Subaşı, city of Salonika, which is inside Greek boundaries today.
Father Ali Rıza whispered the name of the child to his ear. “MUSTAFA.”
Before Mustafa ,Zübeyde Hanım and Ali Rıza Bey had three children named Fatma,Ömer and Ahmet. When Mustafa was born none of those children were alive.
Mother Zübeyde Hanım was a pretty Turkmen woman strictly devoted to religious beliefs.The ancestors of Zübeyde Hanım were known as a branch of Turkmen tribe. They immigrated from Anatolia to Rumelia during the conquest of Rumelia by the Ottomans and settled in Sarıgöl subdistrict located west of the Vodina district in west Makedonia. It is thought that this tribe came there from Konya or Aydın provinces of Anatolia.
Father Ali Rıza was a resident of Salonika and his father was Ahmet Efendi .His uncle Hafız Ahmet Efendi, a teacher in the district school, was nicknamed as “Red Hafız Efendi” because of his red beard.
At the time, Father Ali Rıza was working as a customs officer. Later, he quit and established a partnership with a timber trader Cafer Efendi. He was also involved with brine trading for some time. Ali Rıza passed away at the young age of 47. What were left from Ali Rıza Bey to Zübeyde was two mecidiyes (40 kuruş) idow salary,7 year old Mustafa and his sister Makbule.
Mustafa started school while his father was still alive. Ali Rıza Bey’s desire was to send Mustafa to the newly-opened Şemsi Efendi school so that he would get a contemporary education although Zübeyde Hanım wanted him to attend a traditional school where mostly prayers and hymns were taught. This caused arguments inside the family and eventually a concensus was reached. Mustafa put on his brand new clothes , grabbed his embroidered bag with the Holy Koran inside and started the traditional school, following his mother’s wish, with a traditional ceremony accompanied with prayers and hymns. However, just a few days later, he changed his mind and started Şemsi Efendi school.
In this way, he managed to make both Zübeyde Hanım and Ali Rıza Bey happy. Mustafa Kemal had to be indebted to his father for it was him who opened his son’s path with modern and contemporary ideas. However, unfortunately Ali Rıza Bey would not be able to see the success of his son Mustafa “RISING OVER ANATOLIA like THE SUN.”
Ali Rıza Bey’s death in the November of 1893 due to apparent economical inconveniences made it impossible for the remaining family members to live in Salonika. Thus, Zübeyde Hanım went to Rapla farm by Langaza near Salonika where her mother Ayşe Hanım’s stepbrother Hüseyin Ağa was working as the steward. Hüseyin Ağa took good care of Zübeyde Hanım and the children but Mustafa did not want to stay in the farm for a long time.
HIS AMBITION WAS TO GET A GOOD EDUCATION and BE A GREAT MAN
A decision was made to return to Salonika where Mustafa began to attend a secondary civil servant school. However, things were not fine. One day, he was severely punished by his teacher “Kaymak Hafız Efendi” for he had quarreled with one of his classmates. He was also in a continuous disagreement with one of the other teachers “Copur Hafız Nuri Efendi”. All these events drove him to extreme furiosity andmade him quit the school. This event was one of the milestones in his life. He made the decision to choose his real place: the Military.
It is not possible to think the armed forcess and the nation as seperate. When the nation falled into trouble, the armed forces assisted the state and the nation.
The armed forces always have been one of the foundation stones for the state and the nation in the history of the Turks.
After a short time(1893) Mustafa Kemal enrolled to military middle school, he provided acceptance of himself to his friends and teacher. He was clever, hard working and dignifed. Especially, in the field of Mathematics he was unique. All of his teacher were appreciating him. He had a special positon from view of his Mathematics teacher. Lietunant Commander amazed with his student’s abilities, characher anddiligence.
One day, Lietunant Commander teacher Mustafa spoke to Mustafa quoting.
My son, we both have the same name. As, there should be a difference, let your name Mustafa Kemal, from now on. Years later one more name granted to him. The namer this time is high Turkish Nation. His beloved saviour surnamed as ATATÜRK. Mustafa Kemal enrolled Manastır Military senior high school in 1896. He enrois to war academy at Istanbul on 13 March 1899 and while graduating from there on 10 February 1902 he is a glittering lieutanant. While Mustaf Kemal leaving the war academy with a saber which was a rememberance from his father, all the years in backward passed front of his eyes, like 27 May 1938 one Friday night, the memories were passing front of the his eyes which are looking into darkness while he is farewelling Ankara for the last time. With one difference, in first time the shining eyes were looking to future with hope and desire, second time with peace of the human being, who conducted his obligations but in grief. Right now, he was graduating from War Academy by enrolling military in accordance to his desires since his childhood. Now the time has arrived for him. He kissed his mother’s hand and received her blessing. While Mustafa Kemal was in civil servant school, her mother Zübeyde Hanım, married with a person whose name is Ragıp Efendi. In first days Mustafa Kemal could not accept this marrige and went Rukiye Hanım’s house who was his distant relative, leaving mother’s house. His such feelings continue till he determines that his step father is nice and innocent man. The reason of his dissapointment against the her mother probably is because of her mother’s marrige without prior information to himself of great loyality to his father Ali Rıza Bey, maybe waves of rebellion generating from his soul. Whatever the conditions was at that time, in time good relations estabished with his step father. Mustafa Kemal who graduated from War Academy with a very succesful degree, detached to staff officer class. After completing succesfully three year of staff officer education he graduated from Istanbul War Academy on 11 Jan 1905 with o rank of Staff Captain. Same day, he wrote back of the photo following words which he sent to his mother. “DO YOU REMEMBER MOTHER I TOLD YOU TO WAIT and SHALL BECOME. HERE IS FIRST STEP. Mustafa Kemal” THE SITUATION OF THE COUNTRY When Mustafa Kemal has graduated from the War Academy, the country was in miserable state. Poems of Namık Kemal was circulating like a sad song in elvery patriot’s tongue who loved his country and nation. “Enemy leaned his dagger against the Nations Breast, it is said nobody exist to save his dark fortune” In order to free the country from this situation Mustafa Kemal established an assocation an Damascus named “Country and freedom”. Intended to spread this assocation but, was not able to find and adaquate environment at Damascus. Yafa, Jerusalem, Beirut. In order to spread this assocation he tried to be assigned to the Third Army located at Macedonia. Mustafa Kemal assigned to the Third Army on 30 September 1907 which had the responsibility of Balkans regoin. Major Enver was also in this army and both were meeting and chatting frequently, at Salonika. As much as Mustafa Kemal was bodness and talkative Enver was slient and introvert, as much as Mustafa Kemal is relastic while Enver was in romance. Enver dreams, Mustafa Kemal puts forward solutions and proposals even he make assignments amoungts his friends but these assignments were not result of a fancy mind, result of his plans relevant to future. Sample: In a cold 1908 winter night, in a small coffe-house at Salonika which illuminated with dim lights he was busy making assignments while assigning one of his friends as primeminister and other minister, his one best friends of childhood Nuri (Conker) asked. -Okey Kemal, what you’ll be at that time? The answer was such short and clear which nobody expecting ever. -I’ll be the one assigning you to those slots. 23 July 1908 revolution was clearing the path of leadership for Enver. He promoted within a very short time and awarded with rank of general in 1913. Revolution of 23 July 1908 was a revolution of “Young Turks” and Young Officers. It was a rebellion rather than a revolution. 23 July 1908 revolution, had no effect over the essentials and core of states establishment andsystem. Ottoman and Sultanade was on protection every one of it’s establishment. Mustafa Kemal’s promotion to general rank of a period involved with merciless struggies and victories gained at Çanakkale, Anafartalar, Dumlupınar, Kocatepe. This maybe was the biggest difference between Enver Pasha and Mustafa Kemal Pasha. This two idealist invidual organised a big resistence movement against Italians at Tripoli in 1911. After Balkan war broke out they returned to Istanbul. When war finished, while Enver Pasha continuing his duty in Army, Mustafa Kemal assigned to Sofia as military attache. He remained there till the first World War began. At the time war begins he applied for a duty in battlefield but not accepted. Later on (2 February 1915) assigned as commander of newly established 19th division located at Tekirdağ. Mustafa Kemal organized his division in a short time and passed to maydos. 15 February 1915 is the date Çanakkale battles begin. Since first days Mustafa Kemal is right inside the battle with the forces he command. The enemy powers who attacks with their full power lost the sea battle on 18 March 1915. But, the Alied forces desire ro reach to Istanbul attempting to test their chance from ground. On 25 April 1915 morning a grief case happens. Ottoman grovernment and their general staff did not think about an offensive Through field which will originate from Aegan sea and Gelibolu direction. Also they are not prepared for such a case. But, Mustafa Kemal estimated that enemy may begin a landing compain from Arıburnu which has a dead location, and moved 57th regiment to Kocaçimen point which under his command. When Mustafa Kemal arrives to Conkbayırı he sees that the soldiers of 27th division are retraiting towards Conkbayırı, he cuts them in front and asks -where are you going? -Enemy have arrived. -where? Retreating soldiers point the peak height of 261. As reality enemy was approaching to hill without any barrier at front of them. There were nobody with Mustafa Kemal except two officer and few of retraiting soldiers. His regiment is still at Kocaçimen. Immediately takes over the command and orders. -No way to retreat from enemy. -We do not have ammunition. -You have bayonets which is more powerful tahn ammunition. -Bayonets on attack! Immediate after the voices of ALLAH, ALLAH scatters all over the lowland. Now the heroic Turkish soldier fighting throat to throat. As a result of this struggle amount of time was gained and 57th regiment reached to battle field. At 10 o’clock morning honorable 57th regiment again beings a new raid upon Mustafa Kemal’s following order. “I AM NOT ORDERING TO YOU ATTACK BUT TO DIE. WITHIN THE TIME TILL WE DIE ANOTHER FORCES and COMMandERS CAN TAKE OVER OUR PLACE.. AHEAD!” The war was won by Turkish army. But 57th regiment complately martyred. On 1th June 1925 Mustafa Kemal promoted to full Colonel. Despite this defeat. Allied forces landed to Anafartalar 6/7 August evening again. Fierce battles began. Mustafa Kemal who took pver command of newly established Anafartalar group caoused heavy losses to enemy during the battles on 10 August. He prevented the enemy’s settlement on soil, at Conkbayırı. English forces commander Hamilton writes the following lines in his book named “Gelibolu Battles” “TURKS REALLY FOUGHT BRAVELY WITH SCREAMS OF ALLAH, ALLAH. THERE IS NO WAY TO TELL THIS WAR WITH WORDS” Despite repeated blows, English forces could not pass the defence lines established by honorable Mehmetçik and unique commander Mustafa Kemal and failing to pass through Çanakkale strait. They began to retreat from Çanakkale on 20 December 1915. English author Alan Moorhead describes this retrait in his book named “Gelibolu”as follows. “That young and genius Turkish chief ‘s presence over there is the one of most grief blows of history for Allied forces.” At Çanakkale, while we lost 251309 Mehmetçik , British and Anzac forces suffered 205000 while Frenc suffler 47000 losses. Mustafa Kemal, assigned as XVI army’s commander in chief based at Edirne, after he returned to Istanbul upon conclusion of Çanakkale battles. (11 March 1916). After performing this duty for a short time assigned to a new army called II. nd Army upon advance of Russian Army till Erzurum. Mustafa Kemal took cammand of XVI army on 26 March 1916 after his arrivel to Diyarbakır on 16 March 1916. Mustafa Kemal promoted to Rank of General on 1 April 1916. Let’s have look briefly to a matter relevant to this promotion. After Çanakkale victory Mustafa Kemal’s promotion to General rank was considered something sure. But, despite weeks passed, no news came from Istanbul. At last, while Mustafa Kemal’s promotion begin negotiated at headquartes of union and development session under chairmanship of Talat Pasha, Enver Pasha walks in the room, after realizing the discussion subject he takes out one sheet paper from his pocket and speaks to attendants: “You do not know Mustafa Kemal, he is never satisfied with any rank, becomes a General than he wants to be three star general, than wants to be a four star general. Becomes four star general than he wants to be a field marshall.” In later years, when these discussions were passed to Mustafa Kemal he quoted. “I never thought, Enver could be such clever and future sighted man” Mustafa Kemal promoted to Genaral rank on 1 April 1916, and as commander of XVI corps comes under II. Army he won two big victory against Russians in Muş and Bitlis. Than assigned as deputy commander of II. Army. Here, he had chance to work closely with colonel Ismet (İnönü) bey, whom he knew from the Thesalloniki and Army staff scholl. (23 May 1916) Mustafa Kemal prepared a report releventto conditions of Army and submitted this to deputy of Commander In Chief of Army and government. The ideas in the report not accepted by Deputy commander Enver Pasha. Due to this event he resigned fromhis duty and returned to Istanbul. While he was in Istanbul, preparations were going ahead to send heir of thone Vahdettin to Germany in return of German Emperor’s visit to Istanbul. During this, it is decided that Mustafa Kemal should accompany Vahdettin. After return from Germany Mustafa Kemal got sick from his kidney’s. In 1918 months of June and July he was under treatment at Vienna , Karbad. During this V.Mehmet died and prince Vahdettin succeeded him. Mustafa Kemal returned to Istanbul and payed a visit to Sultan Vahdettin 5.08.1918 he found to know closely during Germany visit explaining to him the simuation of country clearly and the required actions and closed his conversation with follo wing words. “Immediately take over the Commander of Chief of Armed Forces. Do not assing an attorney but a chief af Armed forces as principal. Before anything establish your domination and possesorship over the Armed Forces.” Sultan Vahdettin asked: -Are there any other commanders in the Army thinks like you ? -Yes there any Upon this asnwer Vahdettin rolls his eyes right to left. Answers “Let us think about this.” After this meeting Mustafa Kemal talks two more time Sultan Vahdettin but gains no result. After third negotiation, he wrote following to his diary book. “There cross got out under armpit of a man who we knew him as Haji. Now it is time to look for something different but without frighten anybody in as out season.” Following thisevent, Mustafa Kemal assigned to Syria as commander of VII army on 7 August 1918 by order of Sultan. Is the purpose of this assignment to award Mustafa Kemal or take him away from Istanbul ? The days in ahead would reveal this. Let us point as event Mustafa Kemal lived. Mustafa Kemal, receiving his assigment order, lfts the room. In the hallway some German officers and Balkan wars veterans were chatting. He heard: “These Turkish sorders of no use, They are like flocks of animals. They only know to run away. God may not cause anybody to be commander of such spiritless flock…. Mustafa Kemal approaches to them. Gazez his eyes which are full of flames over these multi star generals with anger than speaks: “Because of that brave Turkish Soldier you are freely walking into this place which into you imitated as animal flock shortly before . What a pitty, that BRAVE TURKISH SOLDIER sacrified his life for you at Arıburnu, Gelibolu, Conkbayırı, Çanakkale. Otherwise today you would be saluting to English and French officers. Turkish soldier will reveal in a short time what he is and you are.” One of the multi star general’s who do not know Mustafa Kemal asks to one of the general nearby to him -Who is this ? -MUSTAFA KEMAL PASHA. Mustafa Kemal immediately lefts Istanbul and after a very troubled trip arrives to Syrian front. Ismet(Inönü) bey and Ali Fuat(Cebesoy) were also here. In order to gain victory these three big commander performed a superhuman action with Turkish soldiers at Syrian front in Damascus, Saria Valley , Aleppo, Riyad. But this time enemy was not consist of only English and French troops. So called Mohammedan Arab sheiks and amir’s were joined to Allien forces. The amir of Hicaz was thristy for Turkish blood. Turkish army was surrounded from all directions and forces to retreat. IV th Army was surrended and complately dispersed. But still, the Army under command of Mustafa Kemal retreated till today’s Syrian border on dates of 25/26 October 1918 without suffering from important losses. The war was almost over. Ottoman Empire signed Armistice of Mondros with severe terms, on 30 October 1918. Same day, Mustafa Kemal took over the command of Thunderbolt Armies group from Liman Von Sanders at Adana. The mondros armistice signed by Rauf(Orbay) bey, on 30 October 1918 was a document of shame and Disgrace. With this document, statement of reasons had been prepared to submit Anatolia which is under Turkish regin for hundred years, to French, English, Italians and Greks. Also, this armistice, caused Mustafa Kemal’s born like a sun from Samsun to asve his country and nation. As a man who do not run by conditions but shapes the conditions Mustafa Kemal will never accept this armistise which is full of unclear statements. After defeat of Ottoman Empire, and execuation of Mondros armistise, various minorities inside the Ottoman soil raised against empire. The people consistof Christans and Islams living together since hundred years peasefully became enemies of each other. The Pontus Greeks settled in Karadeniz region began to action to establish their state which demolished by Fatih Sultan Mehmet. They organised rebel groups and began to attack Turkish villages threating Turkish residents life and possession. While the fact was this, the high comission of English army was telling that the life of Christans are under threat in Karadeniz region and troops may sent and region should be invaded. To investigate the English accusations it was decided to send person there in order to investigate how true are English allegations and take counter measures. For this duty, MUstafa Kemal Pasha sent to SAMSUN as IX th army inspector whose political past was clear and not involved with “Ittihat” movement. While passing from Haydarpasa to across side when he arrived to Istanbul on 13 November 1918 his ship have to pass through Allied forces navy, and told his aide-de-camp Cevat Abbas “They’ll go back like the way they came” and while he is in Istanbul, performed every possible effort to put this idea into live. But, while time passes, he saw that there was no way to save country from Istanbul. He was searchin the chances step to Anatolia. When duty of IX Army Inspector offered to him, did not hesitate. 16 May 1919 day, when he landed Samsun on 19 May 1919 in twillight the plan of how his Nation will be liberated was ready in his mind. While advancing on waters of Bosphours on board worn out Bandırma vessel with few of his patriotic friends Mustafa Kemal quoted while he was looking with sorrow to the enemy warships directed their guns to Dolmabahce place. “THAT IS IT, THEY ONLY LEAN TO POWER OF WEAPON, STEEL and IRON. THE ONLY THING THEY KNOW IS MATERIAL. THEY CAN NOT UNDERSTand THE POWER OF ONES WHO ARE DETERMINED TO DIE FOR LIBERTY. WE ARE NOT CARRYING TO ANATOLIA NEITHER WEAPON NOR AMMUNITON. WE ARE CARRYING IDEAL and FAITH.” LandING TO SAMSUN Mustafa Kemal Pasha who stopped on hazy morning of 19 May 1919 at 7:00 passes his comments relevant to that date in “Speech” as follows; I landed at Samsun on the 19 May 1919. this was the situation. “The group of Powers which included the Ottman Government had been defated. The Ottaman Army had been crushed on every front. An Armistice had been signed under severe conditions. The prolongation of the Great War had left the people exhausted and impoverished. Those who had driven the people and the country into the World War had fied and now cared for nothing but their own safety. Vahdettin, the degenerate occupant of the throne and the Caliphate, was seeking for some despicable way to save his person and his throne, the only objects of his anxiety. The cabinet of which Damat Ferit Pasha was the head, was weak and lacked dignity and courage. It was subservient to the will of the Sultan alone and agreed to every proposal that could protect its members and their sovereing. The army had been deprived of their arms and ammuition, and this state of affairs continued. The Entente Powers did not condiser it necessary to recpect the terms of the armistice. On various pretexts, their meof-warand troops remained at Istanbul. The Vilayet of Adana was occupied by the French, Urfa, Maraş, Antep by the English. In Antalya and Konya were the Itallians, whilst at Merzifon and Samsun were English troops. Foreign officiers and officials and their special agents were very active every where. At last, on the 14th May, that is to say, four days before the following account of events begins, the Greek Army, with the consent of the Entente Powers had landed at IZMIR. Christian elements were also at work all over the country, either openly or in secret trying to realize their own particular ambitions and therebly hasten the breakdown of the State. Mustafa Kemal was contuining in his speech quoting. Morally and materially, the enemy Powers were openly attacking the Ottoman Empire and the country itself. they were determined to disintegrate and annihilite both. The Padisah-Caliph had one sole anxiety-namely to save his own life and comfort. The members of the government had the same feeling. Without being aware of it, the nation had no longer any one to lead it, but lived in darkness and uncertainly, waiting to see what would happen. Those who began undestand clearly the terrors and extent of the catastrophe were seeking some means wherebly to save the country, each guided by the circumstances that surrounded him and the sentiments that inspired him. The Army existed merely in name. The Commanders and other officers were still suffering from the exhaustion resulting from the war. Their hearts were bleeding on account of the threatened dismemberment of their country. Standing on the brink of the dark abyss which gawned before their eyes, they racked their brains to discover a way out of the danger. Here I must add and explain a very important point. The Nation nd the Army had no suspicion at all of the Padisah-Caliph’s treachery. On the Contrary, on account of religious and traditional ties handed down for centuries they remained loyal to the throne and it’s occupant. Seeking for means of salvation under the influence of this tradition, the security of the Caliphate and Sultanate concerned them far more than their own safety. That the country could possibly be saved without a Caliph and without a Padisah was an idea too impossible for them to comprehend. and woe to those who ventured to think otherwise! They would immediately have been loked down upon as men without faith and without patriotism and such would hab,ve been scorned. I must mention another point here. In seeking ways to save the situation it was considered to be specially important to avoid irritating the Great Powers-England, France and Italy. The idea that it was impossible to fight even one these Powers had taken root in the mind of nearly everbody. Consuquently, to think of doing so and thus bring on another war after the Ottoman Empire, all-powerful Germany andAustria-Hungary together had been defeated and crushed would have been looked upon as sheer madness. Not only the mass of the people thought in his strain, but those also who must be regarded as their chosen leaders shared the same opinion. Therefore, two basis would not be in consideration while seaching a path for salvation, first will be no hostile attitude agains allied forces and second to be royal to Padisah and caliphate diligently will be a basic term. Now, Gentlemen I will ask ask you what desicion could have been arrived, at under such circumstances for salvation. Whose existence was it essential to save ? and with whose help ? and how. Therefore, what could be a serious and correct resolution ? IN THESE CIRRUMSTANCES, ONE RESOLUTION ALONE WAS POSSIBLE, NAMELY ,TO CREATE. NEW TURKISH STATE, THE SOVEREIGNITY and INDEPENDENCE OF WHICH WOULD BE UNRESERVEDLY RECOGNISED. This was the resolution we adopted before we left Istanbul and which we began to put into execution immediately after we set foot on Anatolia soil at Samsun. These were the most logical and most powerful arguments in support of his resolution. The main point was that, the Turkish nation should live in honourand dignity. Such a condition could only be attained by coplete independence . NO MATTER HOW WEALTHY and PROSPEROUS A NATION IS , IF IT IS DEPRIVED OF ITS INDEPENDENCE IT NO LONGER IT NO LONGER DESERVES TO REGARDED OTHERWISW THAN AS A SLAVE IN THE EYES OF CIVILISED WORLD. To accept the protectorate of a foreign power is to admit lack of all human qualities, weakness andincipacity. Indeed, it is impossible to envisage people who have not been humilated willingiy accept a foreign master. BUT THE TURKISH BOTH DIGNIFIED and PROUD; HE IS ALSO CAPABLE and TALENTED. SUCH A NATION WOULD PREFER TO PERISH RATHER THAN SUBJECT IYSELF TI THE LIFE OF A SLAVE. THEREFORE, INDEPENDENCE OR DEATH ! This was the rallying cry of all those who honestly desired to save their country. Let us suppose for a moment that in trying to accomplish this we had failed. What would have been the result ? Slavery ! In that case, would not the consequence have been same if we had submitted to the other proposals ? Mustafa Kemal quoted in his speech following ; But with this difference, that a nation that defies death in its struggle for indepence, drives comfort from the thought that it had resolved to make every sacrifice compatible with human dignity. There is no doubt, whatever that in the eyes of both friend and foe throughout the world its position is more respected than would be that of a cravenand degraded nation capable of surrendering itself to the yoke of slavery. Moreover, to labor for the maintenance of the Ottoman dynasty and its sovereign would have been to inflict the greatest harm upon the Turkish nation, for it is independence could have been secured at the price of every possible sacrifice, it could not have been regarded as secure so long as the Sultanate existed. How could it be deemed permissable that a crowd of madmen, united by neither a moral nor a spiritual bond to the country or the nation as a whole could still be trusted, to protect the independence and the dignity of the nation andState ? As for the Caliphate, it could only have been a laughing-stock in the eyes of the civilised world, enjoying the blessings of science. As a result Mustafa Kemal was telling that. As you see in order to carry out our resolution, questions had to be dealt with the nation had hitherto known practically nothing. It was imperative that questions which were considered dangerous to discuss publicly be discussed openly. We were compelled to rebel against the Ottoman Goverment against the Padişah, against the Caliph of all the Mohammedans, and we had to bring the whole nation and army into state of rebellion. Mustafa Kemal who landed to Samsun on 19 May 1919, arrives to havza on 25 May 1919 continuing to work till 12 June, same day passed to Amasya and on 21 June 1919 “Amasya circular”had been signed. But, the works Mustafa Kemal Pasha performing for nation and country deteeted by Istanbul and efforts not pleased Istanbul government and English forces. Mustafa Kemal Pasha arrived to Sivas on 27 June 1919 andwelcomed with compassion and enthusiasm. Same time, Malatyagoverner Ali Galip who came to Sivas ordered Mustafa Kemal’s arrest in accordance with the instructions recevied from Istanbul. But the majority of the meeters were the soldiers who fought at Arıburnu, Anafartalar, Çanakkale under wounded an than discharged, command of Mustafa Kemal. Was it possible to arrest Mustafa Kemal while he was amoungst these patriots?
4. State Control
In contemporary terms, these can be classified as:
1. Individual freedom and national sovereignty
2. Accepting guidance of science and wisdom for all activities of state
Atatürk quoted this as ” My Heritage”
It shouldn’t be forgotten that the basis of all progressivism included in the Republic regime is the ‘Principle of Secularism.’ As usual there is no basis to talk about Republicanism amongst a society ruled by traditions as well as progressivism and secularism.
In western languages this term is used to define the rule of a nation by itself. The following two points are really important in Republican regimes.
a) The Rulers
b) The Ruled
The main point is that both of these groups must have honesty. In a republican regime, honesty is of crucial importance for both sides, and the relations of both sides with each other is very important. In this way, the republic will defend itself against interior and exterior dangers with tight measures limited with the principles of the republican regime. This frame must not be overrun. Otherwise a gap between the republic and the nation will occur. The biggest sufferer in this case will be the Republic itself. For this reason a republican regime has to be smart at all times. Freedom and its applications are limited with the rules of democracy in the countries that adopt this system. Nobody has unlimited rights in republics ruled by democracy. The regimes ruled with non-limited rights and laws cannot be classified as democracy or Republic. In democracy and democratic republican rights of the public and individual freedoms are limited with laws and their borders are marked with justice.
After all these explanations let’s have a look at Atatürk’s understandings of the Republic and State. The points that Atatürk mentioned about the republic about three quarters of a century ago are still the targets in some western countries. Atatürk was not only a well-informed soldier and a future-sighted statesman but also a real thinker. He not only generated ideas but also realized them showing the path of salvation and independence to Third World countries. Had he not placed his ideas on a scientific basis would they still remain contemporary after so many years? If the name of Atatürk circulates in many countries seeking liberty the reason must be searched for.
How did Atatürk prepare the infra-structure of the republic which was proclaimed on October 29, 1923?
The Republic should be based on secular principles. There was no room for Caliphate or its remains, and the new state of Republic should be protected by a just law system. The young generation of the republic would be trained by the broad-minded instructors who were aware of the value of independence and freedom but not by the dark-minded people expelled from the borders.
Everything remaining from empire era out of logic would be demolished and foundations of the republic would be based on positive sciences. Atatürk was aware of the fact that the republic could not proceed only by austerity measures, and the events that took place later confirmed how future-sighted Atatürk was. Atatürk, who pointed out that a population without knowledge and consciousness may not have the right to be a nation, calculated that a nation would possess rights and laws in a ratio based on the level of his consciousness.That is why he cherished culture and training, and defined that culture was the basic essential of a republic. according to Atatürk, it is not enough to protect a republic. It must be deserved! Education is the key element for this. The young generations given a contemporary education may calculate the value of this necessity. For this reason victories achieved by means of sword must be replaced with cultural victories.
Turkish people were changed to a nation from being a religious community by Atatürk. Atatürk’s confidence in the Nation was unlimited. He defended the idea that every revolution would be achieved with the Nation but not despite the Nation. His belief was that every novelty would exist eternally only if it adapted by the Nation. He kept repeating that whoever identified himself as a “Turk” within the boundaries of the country represented the “Turkish Nation” and that the Nation would be called so.
SOVEREIGNITY WILL UNCONDITIONALLY BELONG TO THE NATION
No power, external or internal strength would be able to confiscate this from the hands of the Nation. The nation would be educated to sacrifice their lives when necessary.
Based on a society without class!
This term was cleared by Ataturk as follows: “The state rule which we follow is based on individual diligence and efforts but at the same time on the subjects relevantly tied up to high and public advantages of the nation. Especially in economic fields practically state should be involved to overview economic measures. These two terms of Populism and State Control equals today’s terminology of Social Justiceand State which are terms many of today’s modern democracies are based on.
The term defined as the seperation of religious affairs and state work is a non-reversible point of Turkish revolution and the requirements of being a democracy. After this brief definition, let’s point out to Atatürk’s ideas relevant to religion and science. His ideas about religion were not too different from a noble and sincere member of the religious organisation. He was never an opponent of religion. He believed that religion was necessary for the public but he was against the replacement of law, logic, mentality with religion. He was opposed to merchants of religion, fundamentalists and those who wanted to rule the public with superstitions. Religion was a holy concept to be kept in the one’s conscience. Setting off with these ideas,
on January 31, 1923 he said the following:
“Our religion is a most natural and logical one and it is for this reason that it is the last of religions. In order for a religion to be natural it must co-exist with science, knowledge and logic. Our religion completely complies with these prerequisites. Above, we defined that secularity is the seperation of State and religious affairs but this does not mean that everybody can do everything about religion without the interference of the State. Moreover, State power may be used for any belief system. In this case the freedom of conscience will be obliterated for believers and non-believers.”
Atatürk was aware of the very big problems to be eliminated in order to flee from being an undeveloped society. For him, every contemporary attempt had to include the principle of secularism. Sultanate, caliphate, sharia, religious education and capitulations had to be obliterated. The ideas people create relevant to themselves and their environment are partially in the form of BELİEF and partially KNOWLEDGE.
According to Atatürk’s idea of progressivism it is necessary to walk on a path illuminated with the light of science.
ATATURK’s Address to the Youth
Your first duty is to forever preserve and defend Turkish Independence and Turkish Republic.
This is the very foundation of your existence and your future. This foundation is your most precious treasure. In the future, too, there may be malevolent people at home and abroad, who will wish to deprive you of this treasure. If some day you are compelled to defend your independence and your Republic, you will not think about the possibilities and circumstances of the situation you are in. These possibilities andcircumstances may be extremely unfavorable. The enemies conspiring against your independence and your Republic may have behind them a victory unprecedented in the annals of the world. It may be that, by violence and ruse, all the fortresses of your beloved fatherland may have been captured, all its shipyards occupied, all its armies dispersed and every corner of the country invaded. and sadder and graver than all these circumstances, those who are in power within the country may be in error or misguide and they may even be traitors. Furthermore, they may identify personal interests with the political designs of the invaders. The country may be impoverished, ruined and exhausted .
Youth of Türkiye’s future!
Even in such circumstances, it is your duty to save Turkish Independence and Republic.
You will find the strength you need in your noble blood.
Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Ankara, October 20, 1927