Erzurum is located in East Anatolia Region, 39- 55 north latitudes. 16- 41 east longitudes. Erzurum s neighbors are Kars, Ağrı, Ardahan in east; Erzincan in west; Bingöl and Muş in south; Bayburt, Rize, and Artvin at north. The surface are of Erzurum is 24.768 km2. The surface are of city center is 2.892 km2. Karasu is present in foot of Ereğli Mountain and it is 1850 1980m height from seaside. Erzurum has plainly appearance in east-west direction, and mountainous appearance in north-south direction. Both of the plains are provided by tectonic events. Mountains are: in north, from east to west, Çilligül, Yeniköydüzü, Ziyaret Tepesi, Kargapazarı, Gavur Mountains “Dumlu Tepesi” Yeşerçöl, Kop Mountains, In south Akbaba, Sakaltutan, Nalbant, Şahveled, Alibaba, Dumanlı, Turnagöl, Palandöken and Karagöl Mountains. City is on Anatolia- Kafkasya – Persia railway connection so city is very important stay in night and live trade center in Persia – Hind and Middle Asia trade way. The ways which are Kafkas way, and north Persia way, Sivas Diyarbakır -Irak- Suriye- Basra gulf are combines in Erzurum. In addition of these historical ways Erzurum is connected with Rize over Ispir and Diyarbakır over Bingöl.
The warmest mouth of Erzurum is August. The highest average of warmth is 19° 6 C. The average of warmth is 11° 5C. According to static’s highest average in July is 26°, in august 26° 6C, the average of over solid : 5°C 204.4 days 1O °C 149.2 days. Full of December and January is frozen. The most days with frozen is November, December, January and February. The first day which is under 0°, is in end of October and the last day which is under 0° is in middle of May.
Generally region is under effective of Sibirya anticyclone and Basra cyclone. In winter region is under effective of Sibirya anticyclone. Wind has SE(Southeast), SW (Southwest), S(South) directions. In spring, the effective of Sibirya anticyclone decreases slowly. A unstable wind and heat reigns. In the end of May, this unstable state ends. In summer, Erzurum is under effective of thermal cyclone. Winds are in SE and NE directions. In autumn, Erzurum is under effective of Basra thermal cyclone. Winds are in SE and S directions.
It snows from 20th October to 15th May. In City Center 79.7 days of year is clean, 200.8 days of year is cloudy. 84.7 days of year is closed. It snows 50.1 days of year and 113.6 days of year Erzurum is covered with snow. Again in city center 15.9 days fogy, 7.5 days with hail and 41.5 days with frost.
The average of moisture is %61. Cause of the changing in pressure centers which are effective in city, and the decrease warmth moisture doesn’t change.
Erzurum is very rich about rivers. Erzurum!s solid which is the highest country solids, are covered with mountain series, and high plateau. When snows are melting in March, the rivers rise. Water overflowing doesn’t happen because the riverbeds are deep. Erzurum is located in the center of Çoruh, Aras and Fırat river basins. All of these basins get their main water sources from Erzurum Mountains.
– Karasu: This river the most important arm of Fırat stream. It starts foot of Dumlu Mountains. after going through Gürcü throat it combines a stream which comes from Kargapazarı Mountains and then enters Erzurum plain. In the west of plain it combines with Serçeme stream andenters Aşkale throat which 60 km length. Karasu which flows in Erzincan direction, combines with Salt water which boils in Erzurum Palandoken Mountain.
– Çoruh Stream: It starts in west side of Mecit Mountain and flows to a valley which is not so deep. Then; it enters Gümüshane, then it goes towards to east and enters Erzurum city border. Çoruh Stream flow parallel Çoruh valley and enters Artvin city border in Çamlıkaya.
– Oltu Stream: This stream is constituted by two main arms and collects a big plains water. First arm starts in east north side of Kargapazarı Mountains, goes through Oltu. Then it combines second arm which starts in Allahüekber Mountains and goes through Şenkaya. In the end it goes towards to west north after passing olur.
– Tortum Stream: It starts in Mescit Mountains and collects the water of river basin which includes Tortum It spills to Tortum Lake and produces a big waterfall in lakes shore.In the end it combines with Oltu Stream in Artvin city border
– Aras River: It starts the north side of Bingöl Mountains. After collecting the water of Tekman plateau it flows to north direction in river basin. It goes through Mescitli Boğazı. and it arrives to Pasinler plain. It collects the water of Pasinler plain and combines with Pasinler stream. In the end it flow north east direction and get out city borders.
– Hınıs Stream: Hınıs stream starts from the Bingöl Mountain’s east side and after collecting water of plateau flows east direction. Then it goes through Hınıs plains central. In the end it combines with Murat Stream.
Erzurum is not rich about lakes. The mot important lake at the area is Tortum Lake. It is made by a solid strap to Tortum stream. Tortum stream is surrounds this set and this produces a waterfall which is 50 m height. This lake is used for producing hydroelectric. This lake is important because of the tourism.