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European Policy
55 okunma

European Policy

09 Ekim 2015 09:00
European Policy



In the place of Yavuz, his only son, Kanuni Sultan Suleyman replaced him at the age of 25.5. He had to abandon the Turan policy of his father towards Iran. Actually, the goliath of Charles-Quint came into existence in Europe. He had conquered most of the regions of Europe in his capacity as the king of Spain and the German Emperor. Besides, he had established his influence in the other regions of Europe. He was threatening France and he fought with Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha in the north Africa. In case Turkey could not overwhelm this giant andrepulse it to reasonable borders, it was obvious that the future of the Ottoman world state would fade. It was obligatory to overwhelm the giant of Charles-Quint in the Central Europe and the Western Mediterranean regions that had established dominion in the kingdom of Hungary with extensive borders. Sultan Suleyman advanced towards Belgrade that was the most fortified castle of Hungary that was located on the northern border of Turkey. This city that had been besieged by 3 different rulers for 3 times before that was considered as the key of the Central Europe was conquered by Sultan Suleyman (1521).
He organised his secondary military expedition towards the religious order of Saint-Jean that aimed to fight with Turks and that were settled in the base of Rhode Island. He conwuered the most fortified castle of the world that Fatih had had besieged for 3 times but could not capture (1522-1523).

The situation was in a good state in the Eastern Europe. The Crimean, Kazan and Astrakhan Turkish khanates were submissive to the Ottoman State. In the year of 1524, Sahib Giray conquered the city of Nijeniy Novgorod (today’s Gorky) and he followed the path of his elder brother, Mehmed Giray I Khan who had incinerated the city of Moscow 3 years before in the year of 1521. The Moscow princedom was a subject state that paid annual taxes to the Crimea. Mehmed Giray captured Astrahan in the year of 1522 and the Kazan Khan came to Istanbul in the year of 1524 and he was received by his sovereign, Kanuni Sultan Suleyman.

According to Sultan Süleyman, the affairs in the Eastern Europe had a tertiary status. He was anxious about the advance of the Germany-Spain towards Hungary and their advance towards the eastern sections of the Danube River. He decided to defend France. Actually, if he could subdue France, Charles-Quint would encounter the Ottoman State in the Central Europe. The French King, Francois I was the prisoner of Charles-Quint who was detained in Madrid. His mother applied to the world ruler, Kanuni Sultan Suleyman and implored for the rescue of his son. This was the opportunity that Kanuni had longed for. The sister of this spoiled Charles-Quint was the Queen of Hungary. The sister of the Hungarian King, Layoş II was married with Ferdinand, the Austrian archdule who was the brother of Charles-Quint.

Kanuni advanced towards the Central Europe and Hungary. This third military expedition (1526) was the famous expedition of Kanuni among his 13 military expeditions and this was his second military expedition to Hungary. He caught up with the Hungarian army in Mohaj and he totally defeated and annihilated them together with their king within only 2 hours (29th August 1526). This was one of pitched battles that was considered as a model for its most effective and definite results. He penetrated into the Budapest, the capital city of Hungary that was called as Budin by the Turks on the date of 11th September. The kingdom of Hungary was wiped off from the stage of history. Hungary, Transsilvania andsome of the countries were annexed to Turkey. Czechoslovakia was transferred to the domination of Germany.

Charles-Quint and his brother, Austrian King, Ferdinand had organised several attempts in order to recapture Hungary. Kanuni organised his military expedition towards Germany in the year of 1529. He besieged Vienna for 19 days, but he could not capture this city. In the course of this military expedition, the greatest movement of raids within the Ottoman Turkish history was carried out. The entire Austria and the Southern Germany were destroyed by the Turkish raiders. Charles-Quint did not accept any pitched battle. After 3 years, the ruler organised his second military expedition towards Germany (in the year of 1532). He invaded Austria and captured Graz (on 11th September). Almanya gave in. It officially acknowledged the superiority of Turkey and the ruler through the conclusion of Istanbul Agreement (22nd June 1533).

Kanûnî turned towards Venetia in his seventh military expedition (1537). He landed in Korfu island and he invaded Taranto in Italy for the second time. This military expedition was supported with the naval fleet by Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha. The eight military expedition (1538) was organised against the rebellious Moldavian prince. A state of peace was established with Venetia (20th October 1540). Upon this event, Kanuni organised his military expedition towards Budin (1541). The German Army got dispersed and Hungary was directly annexed to the Ottoman lands under the title of Budin Governorship. The King Ferdinand tried to recapture Budin with a last effort. However, his army composed of 100.000 people was totally destroyed in front of Budin in a crushing manner (24th November 1542). Kanuni set in motion for his tenth military expedition in order to recapture the castle of Estergon that was the most fortified catle in Hungary that had been under the domination of Germany (1543). He conquered Estergon (10th August) and then, Istolni Belgrade (4th September). Germany gave in. According to the peace agreement concluded on the date of 8th October 1547, the King Ferdinand was considered to be equal in rank to the grand vizier (prime minister) in respect of protocol. Therefore, he accepted to pay annual tax and some other heavy conditions. Therefore, the giant Charles-Quint was destroyed. This accomplishment could also have been realised with the Mediterranean wars apart from the Central European wars; but we will deal with this issue in the further sections. Charles-Quint renounced from the throne in desperation and he isolated himself in a monastery (16th January 1556). He left the German Empire and the subject countries to his brother, Emperor Ferdinand and the Kingdom of Spain and the subject countries in America to his son, Felipe II. Germany and Spain were divided into two sections again. The world felt relieved. The fame of Kanuni increased to its peak level.

Kanuni had protected the Protestant sect that came into existence in a short period after his enthronement against the Catholicity. Considering the evaluation of the events, it can be clearly observed that Charles-Quint would have overwhelmed and maybe abolished the Protestant sect but for the Turkish pressures.

A state of peace could not ever be established with Spain and the wars did not come to an end. The state of peace concluded with Germany lasted until the year of 1556. In this year, Kanuni organised his thirteenth and last military expedition towards Germany and this military expedition had become famous with the name of Expedition to Szekesfehervar. The old ruler passed away among the burst of artillery piecesand the buzzes of the rifles in his imperial tent in front of this castle (7th September 1556).

The century of XVI that was called as Turkish Century has been symbolised with Sultan Suleyman II that deserved the title of Kanuni (Legal) that was attributed to him both for his arrangement of the laws and the enforcement of these laws and rules and this ruler was called as Great by the Europeans. He can be considered as the greatest ruler of the Turkish history for 2.500 years and his period has been known as the most glorious and splendid era that the Turks had obtained in the course of history. His sultanate lasted for 46 years. Excluding the domination period of Ertugrul Ghazi as the bey of the principality, he had the longest sultanate within the Ottoman dynasty. In respect of the genius that he reflected in diplomacy and the state administration, he was the second greatest ruler following Fatih and in respect of military power, he was the third strongest ruler following Fatih and Yavuz. He was a scholar, jurist and a poet.

He had inherited the empire with the surface area of 6.5 million km2 and he handed down this empire with the surface area of 14.893.000 km2 (the area of 1.998.000 km2 in Europe, the area of 4.169.000 km2 in Asia, and the area of 8.726.000 km2 in Africa).

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