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Fatih Sultan Mehmet İngilizce
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Fatih Sultan Mehmet İngilizce

09 Ekim 2015 08:59
Fatih Sultan Mehmet İngilizce



Fatih is a district of Istanbul, Turkey, in the old walled city, The name “Fatih” comes from the emperor Fatih Sultan Mehmet, and means in Arabic the ‘conqueror’. The Fatih Mosque built by Mehmet II is here in the district, his resting place is next to the Mosque and is much visited. After the conquest this area of the city quickly became a Turkish neighbourhood, and still today is one of the most (Islamic) conservative areas of Istanbul. Many Turkish people in the ‘Charshamba’ area of Fatih can be seen wearing the traditional baggy ‘shalwar’ trousers and Islamic turban and women dressed in full black gowns as this area is popular with members of the Naqshbandi Sufi order affiliated to a Sheikh, who is known as ‘Mahmud Hoca’. Conservative parties always do well in this area. The area has had a spiritual eminence ever since the city was founded; Constantine’s memorial was here, then a church of Justinian, and then following the Fatih mosque complex came many tombs and mosques built in memory of the Ottoman hierarchy.

The main road which cuts through Fatih is Fevzi Pasa Caddesi, which leads from the Beyazit area up to the walls of the city, a route that has been the main artery of the city since the time of Constantine. To the right (as you come out of the city) is the equally important old Valens aqueduct from the Byzantine era. Add to this the fact that the area is high up and has a commanding view of both the Sea of Marmara and of the Golden Horn, and it is easy to see why the Byzantines built a number of palaces here. and then a crowded city neighbourhood grew around it.

A major church dedicated to the 12 disciples of Jesus was built here but was first destroyed in the 4th Crusade and then subsequently by earthquake damage, and it was on the ruins of the church that the Fatih mosque was built, and around the mosque a large prayer school. Immediately after the conquest groups of Islamic schoolars ahd occupied the major churches of Aya Sofya and the Pantocrator (Zeyrek Camii today) but the Fatih complex was the first purpose built Islamic seminary within the city walls. The building of the mosque complex ensured that the area continued to thrive through the conquest, markets grew up to support the thousands of workers involved in the building and to supply them with materials. Also after the conquest the Edirnekapı gate in the city walls became the major exit to Thrace and this gave a whole new lease of life to the neighbourhoods overlooking the Golden Horn. The Fatih mosque was on the road to Edirnekapı and the Fatih district became the most populous area of the city in early Ottoman times andyet more mosques and markets were built including: Iskender Pasha Mosque, once famous as a centre for the Naqshbandi order in Turkey); Hirka-l-Sharif Mosque, which houses the cloak of the Prophet Muhammad (The Mosque is in common use but the cloak is only on show during Ramadan, the month of fasting); the Jerrahi Tekke; The Sunbul Effendi Tekke and the Ramazan Effendi Tekke both in the Kocamustafapaşa district and Vefa Mosque. The last 4 were named after the founders of various Sufi orders, and Sheik Ebü’l Vefa in particular was of major importance in the city and was very fond of Fatih. Many other mosques, schools, baths and fountains in the area were built by military leaders and officials in the Ottoman court.

from the 18th century onwards the city began to grow outside the walls, and Fatih began to decline, a process accelearated by fire which destroyed whole neighbourhoods of wooden houses, and a major earthquake in 1766, which destroyed the Fatih mosque and many of the surrounding buildings, which were subsequently rebuilt. Fires continued to ravage the old city and the wide roads that run through the area today are a legacy of all that burning.
Today, there are still remnants of the sea walls along the Golden Horn and along the Marmara shore, to give a sense of the shape of old walled city and there are a number of important pieces of architecture in the Fatih district including; the acqueduct across Ataturk Bulvari, the fortress on the city walls at Yedikule, The Byzantine palace of Blahernai, Fethiye Camii, Kariye Camii (the Byzantine church of the Chora) and the Fatih mosque itself.

To the south on a parallel to Fevzi Pasa Caddesi is the tram, which begins at Sirkeci and snakes its way up the hill to Sultan Ahmed past Beyazit and Laleli Mosques and Istanbul University and on to Aksaray. fromthere the tram goes through Fistikagacı to the south (an area popular with students from Istanbul University of Fatih (roughly between Fatih proper and Koca Mustafa Pasa) to the city walls.It is also in Fatih,where Istanbul’s metro system starts (at Aksaray) and where Istanbul’s central police HQ is (Emniyet), which also issues foreign nationals resident permits or visas.

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