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Foundation of the Ottoman State
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Foundation of the Ottoman State

09 Ekim 2015 08:43
Foundation of the Ottoman State



Faoundation of the Ottoman State
The father of Osman Ghazi that has been considered as the founder of the Ottoman State was Ertugrul Ghazi and his father was Gunduz Alp. There is probability that Gündüz Alp’s father was Kaya Alp, his father was Gök Alp, his father was Sarkuk Alp, and his father was Kayık Alp. It is probable that this Sarkuk Alp was the leader of the Kayi tribe that came from the Central Asia and Turkestan towards the Eastern Anatolia in order to settle in this region as homeland. The region in which they settled was the environs of Ahlat in the north-east of the Van Lake.

It can be thought that while Osman Ghazi’s grandfather, Gunduz Alp had been a bey in the service of Mardin Artuklu bey principality who were from Kayi tribe like him, he probably got drown while passing over the Euphrates River in Caber and he was buried into a Turkish tomb. The reason that forced the family that would found the Ottoman State after one and a half-century to move from Ahlat could be the Mongolians of Jenghiz Khan.

The distance between Ahlat-Mardin is approximately 200 km in the direction of south-west. Gündüz Alp must have come down to the south-west for a further distance of 250 km upon a mission ordered by Arslan (1201-1239) and thus, he must have come to Caber. Gündüz Alp who was the chief of Kayi tribe that could not be successful in this mission was lost. Yassiçemen pitched battle took place under the command of his son, Ertugrul Ghazi in the suımmer of 1230. In this battle, ertugrul Bey who was at the age of 39 must have provided a trivial but a brave service for Alaeddin Keykubat who was the sultan of Turkey Sel…..

Upon this service of him, Alaeddin entitled Ertugrul Bey with a feoff on the border of the Byzantine. Ertugrul advanced from Erzincan with a distance of approximately 900 km. Then, he reached to his feoff. Probably this was in the year of 1231 and the nucleus of the Ottoman State had been founded thereof.

The western borders of the Seljuk Turkey against the Byzantine were defended by two great vanguard beys. These were the members of Cobanogullari principality that lived in Kastamonu in the north and Germiyanogullari principality that lived in the south. Ertugrul Bey had been submissive to the Cobanogullari principality until his death in the year of 1281 for a period of 50 years. He was not one of the great vanguard beys that were directly subject to Seljuk Emperor in Konya.

The homeland granted to Ertugrul Ghazi was the region in which the borders of the cities of Bursa-Bilecik connected to one another andit consisted of the lands with the surface area of nearly 1.000 km2. Söğüt was conquered from the Byzantine in the further periods and it had become the capital city.

Ertugrul Ghazi was replaced by his son Osman Ghazi and he had reigned for the sultanate period of 43 years until the year of 1324. Osman Ghazi was an unimportant vanguard bey that was subject to Cobanogullari principality like his father until the year of 1300. In this year, he was promoted to the rank of a great vanguard bey that was directly subject to Konya Seljuk State. Therefore, the Ottoman statism had lived under the submission to Cobanogullari principality and Kastamonu for 69 years. When the Seljuk State collapsed in the year of 1308, Osman Bey became one of the great vanguard beys that were directly subject to Ilhan that resided in Tabriz. Then, he was supervised by the general governors of Anatolia that were subject to Ilhan. The submission to Ilhanli State continued until the year of 1335.

Osman Ghazi expanded the lands with the surface area of 4.800 km2 that he had inherited from his father in the year of 1281 to the surface area of 16.000 km2. Then, he transferred these lands to his son, Orhan Ghazi. He had conquered these lands from the Byzantine. The inheritance left by Osman Ghazi consist of today’s Bilecik city, the central district of Eskişehir, Gevye, Akyazı, andHendek districts of Sakarya, Domaniç district of Kütahya, Mudanya, Yenişehir and Inegöl districts of Bursa.

Orhan Ghazi captured the city of Bursa (6th April 1326) that had been besieged by his father for years and he moved the capital city to Bursa. Therefore, Ottoman dynasty that reached to the Marmara Sea in the year of 1321 and thus, put to sea captured another Byzantine city and afterwards, they put to sea in the Black Sea. Each of the three members of the Ottoman dynasty was a prince that dominated for 65 years since the year of 1231 until the year of 1326. However, since the the year of 1326, Orhan Ghazi had become a real king from that date on and only the bey of the Karamanogullari principality was at the same rank among all the Anatolian Turkmen beys.

In the year of 1335, Sultan Orhan got rid of the submission to the Ilhanli State and he became the leader of an extremely dynamic state that was fully independent and a very powerful state in respect of military characteristics. His sultanate that lasted for a period of 38 years between February 1324 and March 1362 had passed with conquests. He had inherited the genius of his father and probably a genius beyond him. He maintained his relations with Anatolian Turkmen Bey Principalities, the Balkan states and the Byzantine with an extremely skilful diplomacy. This peculiarity always resulted with the situations in favour of the Ottoman State.

In May 1329, he conquered Iznik that was considered as a very important city in those periods. He caught the Byzantine emperor,anderonikos Paleologos III that wanted to recapture the city within the environs of Gebze with a distance of 40 km from the Bosphorus before he penetrated into the Turkish lands. In the war that they fought, the emperor got injured and he ran away and the two princes of the empire were left in he battlefield. This Pelekanon pitched battle (2nd March 1313) diffused the fame of the Ottoman ruler all over the world. Actually, he had defeated the Byzantine Emperor that was considered as the ruler of first degree in respect of title and protocol in Europe in an open battlefield.

In the year of 1345, he annexed the lands of Karesi principality that had established dominion within the environs of Balikesir-Dardanwelles as the first Turkmen bey principality. Then, he established dominion in the Asian side of the Dardanelle Straits. In the year of 1354, Ghazi Suleyman Pasha who was Orhan Ghazi’s elder son and the Crown Prince set foot in the Gallipoli Peninsula, Roumelia, the Balkans and Europe. It was one of the turning points in the Turkish history. He acquired the fame of the “Conqueror of Roumelia”. He conquered the Gallipoli Peninsula. Then, he captured Ankara in the year of 1354. He fell down from his horse and died in the year of 1359and he was buried in his mausoleum that has been one of the greatest national places of visit in Bolayır. He was replaced by his brother, Ghazi Murad Bey (Murad I). Murad Bey surpassed the River Maritsa in the early year of 1359 and captured Dimetoka. Then, he organised some military expeditions towards the city walls of Istanbul. In the year of 1362, he replaced his father, Orhan Ghazi. After 4 months, he captured Edirne in July 1362. from now on, the Ottoman State is an empire. It is one of the strongest states of the world and it is a military power to be avoided.

The wealth that his son inherited from Sultan Ahmet covered the surface area of 95.000 km2. It includes all of the today’s cities of Bilecik, Bursa, Balıkesir, Sakarya, Kocaeli, and Bolu, the most regions of the cities of Çanakkale and Eskişehir, most of the Asian lands of the province of Istanbul, and some parts of the cities of Edirne, Kırklareli, Tekirdağ, Ankara, Manisa, Kütahya, and Izmir. The population of Orhan Ghazi’s state over these lands is much more than the population of the United Kingdom in those times. and these lands were among the richest countries of the world in that era. The Straits were spread to two continents among the Sea of Marmara, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. These lands had a significant geopolitical importance.

Sultan Murad I was enthroned in the place of his father in the year of 1362. After several months of his enthronement, he captured Edirne. Meanwhile, it had been 131 years since the settlement of Ertugrul Ghazi that was his father’s grandfather within the environs of Sakarya. Within 131 years, they had expanded from Sakarya towards the River Maritsa. The most important sections of these lands were conquered from the Christians through holy wars and these places had become Turkish regions in the further periods. Pursuant to Sultan Orhan who had been the most powerful ruler and leader of Turkey since the year of 1335, Sultan Murad had attained a level that could not be reached by any other Anatolian Turkmen principalities in the year of 1362 and he started his sultanate period thereof.

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