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Sociology Terms – Sosyoloji Terimleri
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Sociology Terms – Sosyoloji Terimleri

15 Ağustos 2015 18:25
Sociology Terms – Sosyoloji Terimleri




. Social imagination: To think 2ourselves away’ from the familiar routines of our daily lives in order to look at them anew(yeniden)
• Unintended consequences:EX/ two parents might want to make their children conform to socially accepted ways of acting, to achieve their goal, the parents act in a strict and authoritian way. The unintended consequences of their authorianism; however, might be to drive the children to rebel and break loose from orhodox standards of behaivour.(amaçlanmamış sonuçlar)
• Social reproduction: It refers to how societies ‘keep going’ over time; social transformation to the changes they undergo(çekmek,katlanmak). It occurs because there is continuity in what people do from day to day and year to year and in the social practices they follow.
• Social transformation: Social reproduction içinde yer alır. EX/ internet yeni olduğu zamanlarda insanlar bir değişim yaşadı.
• Anomie: According to Durkheim, processes of change in the modern world are so rapid and intense(şiddetli) that they give rise to major social difficulties, which he linked to anomie, a feeling of aimlessness(amaçsızlık) or despair provoked(kışkırtmak, neden olmak) by modern social life.
• Materialist conception of history: According to Marx, ıt is not(as Durkheim claimed) the ideas or values human beings hold that are the main sources of social change, rather, social change is promted primarily by economic influnces. “All human history thus far is the history of class strugles”
• Capitalism: It is a system of production that contrasts radically with previous economic systems in history involving as it does the production of goods and services sold to a wide range of consumers. Capitalism is thus a class system, in which conflict between classes is a common place occurance(oluş, meydana çıkma)
• Self-Enlightenment(bilgi edinme): The more we know about why we act as we do, and about the overall workings of our society, the morelikely we are to be able to influence our own futures.
• Evolution: The development of the human species has come about as a result of a random process.
• Natural selection: All organic beings need food and other resources such as protection from climatic extremes, in order to survive, but not enough resources exist to support all the types of animal that exist at any given time, because they produce far more offspring than the environment can provide food for…
• Mutation(değişme,dönüşme):It is a random genetic change which alerts the biological characteristics of some individuals in a species.
• Sociobiology(sosyobiyoloji):It refers to the application of bilogical principles in explaining the social activities of all social animals, including human beings.
• İnstinct(içgüdü): It is a complex pattern of behaivour that is genetically determined.
• Subcultures(alt kültür): In modern cities, for example, many subcultural communities live side by side- west indians, pakistanis, indians… ın some areas of central London today.
• Ethnocentrism(kendi kültürünün en iyi olduğuna kusursuz olduğuna inanma durumu): It is judging other cultures by compansion with one’s own.
• Cognition(idrak kabiliyeti): The ways in which children learn to think about themselves and their environment.
• Psychoanalysis(psikanaliz): The technique of therapy he invented involves getting patients to talk freely about their lives, particularly about what they can remember of their early experiences.
• Oedipus complex: The oedipus coplex is overcome when the child represses both his erotic attachments to his mother and his antagonism towards his father(most of this happens on the unconscious level)
• Generalized other: The general values and moral rules involved in the culture in which he or she is developing.
• Sensorimotor stage: It is the first stage of cognitive development, which lasts from birth up to about age two.
• Pre- Operational stage(age between 2-7): It is the stage which Piaget devoted thebulk(şişmek büyümek,genişlemek) of his research. This stage lasts from age two to age seven, when children acquire a mastery of language and become able to use words to represent objects andimages in a symbolic fashion.
• Egocentrism stage(ben merkez): This concept does not refer to selfishness but to the tendency of the child to interpret the world exclusively in terms of its own position.
• Concrete operational stage(age beween 7-11): During this phase, children master abstract, logical notions.
• formal operational period(age between 11-15): During adolescene, the developing child becomes able to grasp highly abstract andhypotecial ideas.
• Life course: The various transitions through which individuals pass during their lives seem at first sight to be biologically fixed- from childhood to …..hood and eventually to death.
• Slavery: It is an extreme form of inequality in which some individuals are literally owned by others as their property.
• Castle: This term is comming from the portuguese casta, meaning “race” or “pure stock”(p.g.-241)
• Estates: They were part of european feudalism but also existed in many other traditional civilizations.
• Upper class: The wealthy, employers and industrialists, plus top executives-those who own or directly control productive resources.
• Middle class: Which includes most white collor workers and proffessionals.
• Working class: Those in blue-collar or manual jobs.
• Peasants: People engaged in traditional types of agricultural production.
• Means of production: Land,labor,capital,entrepreneurship
• Capitalists: People who earn their living by selling their labor to working class or in the now somewhat archaic term Marx sometimes favours the “proletariat”
• Surplus value: It is the source of profit, which capitalists are able to put to their own use.
• Transitional classes: These are class groups left over from an earlier type of production system, such as the peasantry in modern societies.
• Prestige: Positively privileged status groups include any groupings of peopl who have high prestige in a given social order.
• Pariah groups: They are negatively privileged status groups subject to discrimination that prevents them from taking advantage of opportunities open to most others.
• Vertical mobility: It means movement up or down the socşoeconomic scale.
• Lateral mobility: It refers to geographical movement between neighbourhoods, towns or regions.
• Intragenerational mobility: We can look at individuals own careers. How far they move up or down the social scale in the course of their working lives.
• Intergenerational mobility: We can analyse how far children enter the same type of occupation as thir parents or grandparents.
• Officials(memur,resmi,memuriyete ait): The rule of officials is thus Bureaucracy.
• İdeal type: It is an abstract description constructed by accentuating certain features of real cases so as to pinpoint their most essential characteristics.
• Survelliance(gözetim,teftiş): The supervision of activities in organizations.
• Survelliance society: A society in which information about our lives is gathered by all types of organizations.
• Oligarchy: It means rule by few.
• Global corporations: For example, Sony, Toyota, Mitsubishi.
• Transnational companies: The term ‘transnational’ is preferable, indicating that these companies operate across different national boundaries rather than simply within several or many nations.
• International division of labour: The worldwide distribution of jobs.
• Ethnocentric transnationals: İn this type, company policy is set, and as far as possible put into practice, from a headquarters in the country of origin.
• Polycentric transnationals: Overseas subsidiaries are managed by local firms in each country.
• Geocentric transnationals: They are international in their management structure. Globally integrated management structure with higher managers moving from country to country.
• The informal economy: For example, it is not recorded in any direct way in the official employement statistics.
• Voluntary work. Gönüllü iş, iin parası öneml ama işin kategorisinin önemi daha fazla.( page. 307)
• Occupation: An occupation or job is work that is done in exchange for a regular wage or salary.
• Economic system: It consists of institutions thet provide for the production and distribution of goods and services.
• Technology: It refers to harnessing of science to machinery to achieve greater productive efficiency.
• Economic interdependence: Ekonomic bağımsızlık.( page.309)
• Taylorism: It is a scientific management designed to maximize industrial output.
• Fordisö: It is an extension of Taylor’s principles of scientific management, is the name used to designate the system of mass production tied to cultivation of mass markets.
• Low-Trust systems: Jobs are set by management and are geared to machines.
• High-Trust systems: Workers are permitted to control the pace, and even the content, of their work, within overall guidelines.
• Automation: A programmable lathe that made screws, nuts and gears.
• Trade union: Sendika birliği. ( page.314)
• Strike: Grev. ( page.316)
• Housework: House work in its current form came into existence with the separation of the home and workplace.
• Portfolio worker: Workers will not be stuck in the same job for years on end and will be able to plan their work lives in a creative way.

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