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Towards The Balkans
50 okunma

Towards The Balkans

15 Ağustos 2015 18:45
Towards The Balkans



While his elder brother, Ghazi Süleyman Paşa was the Conqueror of Roumelia, Sultan Murad I Han Hüdâvendigâr Ghazi was the Conqueror of the Balkans. When the Turks surpassed the River Maritsa, the Balkan states were alarmed and they arranged the first Crusade coalition against the Ottoman State. This coalition advanced towards the Ottoman State under the chief command of Hungarian King, Layoş I with the participants of Serbian King, Uroş V, and the Bosnian king, Tvtko I. However, they were totally defeated in Sırp Sındığı by Hajji İlbey in a crushing manner in the year of 1364. The Second Crusade army was overwhelmed in Çirmen pitched battle by Murad I on the date of 26th September 1371. In this war, the Serbian king, Vukaşin who was the chief commander and his brother, the Crown prince Uyşat had died.

Murad I who swiftly captured the Balkans needed to expand the state in the lands of the Anatolian Turkmen principalities. He also required the lands of these principalities in respect of soldiers, etc. He tried to expand towards Anatolia through the protection of peace and the advantages that he had acquired with his fame and dignity. However, particularly the Karamanogullari principality showed much resistance against him. The first Ottoman-Karaman war broke out in the years of 1386-1387 and Karaman was defeated just like in the wars that would follow this fight in the further periods.

The Third Crusade Coalition was totally annihilated in the First Kosovo pitched battle on the date of 20th June 1389. However, Sultan Murad was killed as a martyr pursuant to the war. Murad I who was one of the exceptional soldiers of the Turkish history reigned for a sultanate period of 27 years and 3 months. Pursuant to his sultanate, he left an empire that reached to the surface area of 500.000 km2 to his son, Yıldırım Bayezid. The European lands (291.000 km2) were much more than the Asian lands (208.000 km2). Therefore, the borders of the state that Orhan Ghazi had left expanded more than 5 fold and this accomplishment took place within a period shorter than a generation (33 years). The Fanube River constituted the border in the north and the Turkish lands extended towards the northern suburbs of Athena and the southern suburbs of Belgrade in the Balkans and to the region between the Black Sea and the Adriatic Sea in the direction from east towards the west. The coasts of the Central Black Sea region and the western section of the Central Anatolia had recognised the sovereignty of the Ottoman State. They had been so close to the Mediterranean Sea.

In the year of 1390 and in the first months of 1391, Bayezid I abolished the Western Anatolian Turkmen principalities one by one with a speed that entitled him with the title of “Yıldırım” (Lightning, Express) and he annexed their lands to the Ottoman State. Most of them did not even resist to him. This resistance was impossible and it was advantageous to annex to the Ottoman union. In the year of 1391, Sultan Bayezid was in the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. He overwhelmed Karaman that declared war in the Second Military Expedition to Anatolia. He bombarded the Aegean islands with 60 units of war ships and then, he carried out the first blockade of the Byzantine by the Ottoman State. In the summer of the year of 1391, the Southern Romanian princedom that was called Eflak by the Turks recognised the Ottoman domination and thus, the Ottoman power had surpassed the Danube River. In the following year, Salonika and Silivri were conquered. Pursuant to the defeat of the army pertaining to the Hungarian King, Sigismund, the ruler organised his 3rd military expedition to Anatolia. He directly annexed Isfendiyar Turkmen principality in Kastamonu to the Ottoman union.

On the date of 25th September 1396, Yildirim totally defeated a Crusade army in the war in Nigbolu to which the entire Europe had participated. This army that was composed of 130.000 people to which the most distinguished troops of the Europe had participated had been arranged with one year and with exorbitant expenditures. The Crusade Army intended to save the Byzantine from the Ottoman blockade, to repulse the Turks from the Balkans and even to advance towards Jerusalem. Therefore, the big states such as Hungary, France, Germany, Venetia and several small states had participated in this Crusade army. The Hungarian King was the commander of the Crusade Army.

Yildirim Khan organised his military expedition to Attica and Mora. Pursuant to the direct annexation of Karaman Principality to the Ottomanunion, he came to Canik (Sinop) in the spring of the year of 1398. At the end of this year, he abolished the state of Kadi Burhaneddin. He captured Kayseri, Sivas and the environs and he advanced towards the Eastern Anatolia. Then, he organised a military expedition towards Malatya and Dulkadir principality.

He besieged the Byzantine for 4 times. In these years, the most powerful state of the world, Timur State was under the dominion of the Eastern Turks and the second most powerful state of Yildirim Bayezid was under the dominion of Western Turks. The military expedition to Anatolia organised by Tamburlaine saved the Byzantine and hindered the development of the Ottoman State for at least a half-century. On the date of 28th July 1402, the greatest pitched battle of the Middle Ages took place between Tamburlaine and Yildirim in Çubuk Savanna in Ankara. Yildirim was defeated and taken prisoner. In the following year, he died in Aksehir. Tamburlaine invaded Bursa that was the capital city of the Ottoman State. However, he could not pass to the Ottoman lands in Roumelia. He reinvigorated the Anatolian Turkmen principalities with much more power than they had in the past.

The period between the years of 1402 and 1413 has been called as the “Interregnum Period” or the “Struggle of Princes”. In these years, Yildirim’s sons struggled with each other in order to seize the inheritance of their father that gradually was diminished. All of these princes were submissive to Tamburlaine and his successors. The real ruler of these years was Yildirim’s elder son, Suleyman I. He had selected Edirne as the capital city, and he established dominion in Roumelia and in some sections of Anatolia. When he was killed in the year of 1411, his brother, Sultan Musa replaced him and he was also annihilated by his elder brother, Sultan Mehmed I Han in the year of 1413. Therefore, Çelebi Sultan Mehmed became the only ruler after his sultanate in Amasya and the Anatolian lands until the year of 1413. Meanwhile, one of his brothers, Mustafa Çelebi had also claimed for his right in the sultanate and he was annihilated under great difficulties.

In the year of 1402, Yildirim left an empire with the surface area of 942.000 km2 (the area of 500.000 km2 in Anatolia and the area of 442.000 km2 in the Balkans). The Anatolian turkish union was on the verge of accomplishment. However, this work was undermined in the year of 1402. His son, Mehmet I had only the lands with the surface area of 694.000 km2 in the year of 1413 (the area of 376.000 km2 in the Balkans and the area of 318.000 km2 in Anatolia). Sultan Mehmet endeavoured great efforts until the year of 1421 in order to recapture the inheritance of his father. Upon his death, the surface area of the state had reached to 870.000 km2; however, he could not reach the period of his father in respect of power. Besides, some of these lands were the subject principalities that had been directly annexed to the Ottoman union in the formof a district in the period of Yildirim.

His son, Murad II tried to follow the trace that his grandfather had left behind for a quarter century and when he died in the year of 1451, he almost had reached to this trace. Upon the death of Tamburlaine’s son, Sultan Shahruh in the year of 1477, the Eastern Turkish Khanate started to get dissolved. Upon these events, the Ottoman State became the first state of the world. It would not leave this superior first degree until the year of 1770.

like the fifth blockade of Sultan Musa, the sixth blockade of Murad II in the year of 1422 –despite its severe conditions- did not yield any results. Murad II had fought with the Anatolian Turkmen principalities, and especially with Karamanogullari principality. He recaptured Salonika in the year of 1430. He fought with the most powerful navy and land forces of Europe such as the Venetian, Hungarian, etc. In the year of 1439, he besieged Belgrade- the city under the dominion on Hungary that was considered as the key of the Central Europe-, but he could not capture it. However, he subdued the Bosnian kingdom under his sovereignty.

On the date of 24th December 1443, Hunyadi Yanoş who was the Hungarian chief commander defeated the Ottoman army in Izladi Defile. Uon this event, the Segedin Peace Agreement was concluded between both states (12th July 1444). Murad II who was so exhausted and worn out left his throne to his son, Mehmed II who was in his childhood (the future Fatih Sultan Mehmed). Then, he isolated himself in Manisa This was the only incident of renunciation from the throne that took place under his own will and without any pressure in the Ottoman history. However, a new Crusade army that wanted to benefit from this situation penetrated into the Turkish lands in September 1444. Sultan Murad who emergently came from Manisa on the date of 10th November 1444 totally defeated and annihilated this army in Varna pitched battle and thus, he saved the future of Turkey. The chief commander and the Poland king, Ladislas was taken prisoner.

Meanwhile, Murad II became the ruler again and he left the throne to his son. Then, he ascended the throne for the third time upon the insistence of the statesmen. He organised 2nd military expedition towards Mora in the year of 1446 and the military expedition to Albania in the following year. He took his son, Mehmed II with him. He totally defeated a new Crusade army in the Second Kosovo Pitched Battle on the date of 19th October 1449. Germany, Hungary, Poland and some other states had participated in this Crusade coalition. This was the last Crusade expedition that was organised in order to repulse and exile the Ottomans from the Balkans. from that date on, Europe would not have such an attempt. He organised his second military expedition to Albania together with his son, Mehmed II in the year of 1450. He was a statesman, diplomat and commander with an extraordinary genius. He was the real founder and protector of the movement of science, art and culture that was called as “Ottoman Renaissance” that came into existence in parallel with the movement of the Eastern Turks called as “Timurlu Renaissance” in the same years. He handed down the most powerful state of the world in respect of every field to his son, Mehmed II. However, only Venetia was the superior force in the seas. He had extensively combined the inheritance of his grandfather, Yildirim. He was a scholar, poet and musician. His feelings of justice and mercy were highly developed.

Mehmed II who replaced him had been born in Edirne palace in the moment of sunrise in the morning of a Sunday on the date of 30th March 1432. He was 19 years old and he had ascended the throne for two times. Besides his sultanate experience, he had participated in the military expeditions together with his father and he had been trained as a commander. He organised a military expedition towards Karaman that wanted to get the advantage of the situation. Afterwards, he concentrated with all his existence upon the only issue in order to resolve anderadicate the problem of the Byzantine that had turned into gangrene. He constructed the Roumelia Fort and therefore, he disconnected the Straits together with the Anatolian Fort that had been constructed on the other side by Yildirim. Then, he spent the winter of 1452-53 in Edirne occupied with the great arrangements for the war. He had personally arranged the estimations and plans for the cast artillery pieces that his army and the world had not seen until that time. On the date of 23rd March, he set in motion from Edirne with his artillery pieces that would give an end to the Middle Ages. The Byzantine blockade was initiated on the date of 6th April. The islands of Istanbul were captured on the date of 18th April. The Turkish fine naval fleet was buoyed in the Golden Horn through the cradles from the land at night on the date of 22nd April. In the final attack that was carried out in the morning of the date of 29th May, the Byzantine was captured. The most fortified city walls of the Middle Ages -that would not be opened by any force- were surmounted.

The date of 29th May 1453 was considered as the end of the Middle Ages from various aspects. It has been considered as the most exceptional event of the Turkish history and it was called as “Fethi Mübin”. St. Sophia that was the biggest church of the world and the most ancient building (century VI) of the Europe that had stayed alive was transformed into a mosque. The World Patriarchy that was the head of all of the Orthodox Christians was not abolished. However, they were under the protection of the ruler instead of the protection of the Byzantine Emperors. Therefore, the ruler at the age of 21 that was called as “Fatih” (Conqueror) opposed against the Catholic Europe and he prevented the union of the Christianity with the sect of Catholicity. Istanbul was selected as the capital city and the public works were initiated with a great speed for the development of the city. The echoes of the conquest were enormous in both the Islam and Christian worlds. It was considered as one of the greatest events of the world history.

It has laid the foundation for the Ottoman World State. The State had exceeded the level of power that was handed down by Yildirim han in the year of 1402.

The population of the world was about 400 millions on the verge of Modern Times (275 millions of people in Asia, 70 millions of people in Europe, 40 millions in Africa, and 15 millions in America).

The world policy of Fatih Sultan Mehmed Han was initiated thereof. The line of Euphrates-Taurus that was handed down by Yildirim in Anatolia had not been reached yet. However, all the wounds of the Ankara calamity were recovered. There was not any state that could resist against Turkey all alone in Europe. In respect of the world policy, it was required to put out to seas and to absolutely overwhelm the superiority of Venetia in the seas. Turkey Empire settled into both sides of the both continents with such a power and determination that the progress to a world state was an inevitable fate and a historical destiny.

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